By P. M. S. Hacker

This article presents a distinct and compelling account of Wittgenstein's effect upon 20th century analytic philosophy, from its inception to its next decline.

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32 The enumeration o f such propositions is a crucial part o f logic (and hence of philosophy), since it is part of the task o f making an inventory o f logical forms - that is, of describing the most general structures o f things. 33 For not only does this give one knowledge of the most general facts about the universe; it also makes clear the formal components o f all possible judgements, since, as we have seen, according to the multiple relation theory o f judgement, the form of the possible fact judged enters into the judgement.

Sentences are expressions of The Achievement o f the Tractatus 31 thoughts. But a thought is itself a kind of language, composed of thought-constitu­ ents. The form of a thought must mirror the form of what it depicts no less than must a sentence. Natural language is necessary for the communication of thoughts, but not for thinking, the latter being effected in ‘the language of thought’. Indeed, it is mental processes of thinking and meaning that inject content into the bare logico-syntactical forms of language.

Grammar, though not our master, will yet be taken as our guide’ (PrM 42). Both philosophers thought that natural languages were logically defective, that ordinary grammar was a fallible guide to the real structures which, in their view, logic and philosophy must investigate, and that the new logic provided a logically ideal language for the purposes of philosophy. Frege’s concept-script - ‘a formula language of pure thought’, as he called it - was conceived to reveal the true struc­ ture of thoughts which natural languages obscure.

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