By Pieter R. Wiederhold

Delivering all elements of humidity size and instrumentation, this paintings contains rudiments and idea, universal purposes, merits and obstacles of frequently-used sensors and strategies, and instructions for set up, upkeep and calibration. The disk is meant for simple conversions of humidity parameters and devices.

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1). ‘Spiral’ currents are particularly profound among these features and represent a key facet of nearly all of his water drawings. 1). It is fascinating how this description, given 500 years ago, is similar to a modern view of the mean flow structure as a superposition of the primary flow and the orthogonal secondary flows. , time-averaged) and fluctuating turbulent components (Tsinober, 2009), although the first interpretation seems better justified. , Thomson, 1876; Francis, 1878; Wood, 1879;Cunningham, 1883; Stearns, 1883; Leliavski, 1894; Gibson, 1909; Joukowski, 1915).

2010). 2, where it is proposed that secondary flows are fed by turbulence. Pinelli et al. (2010) performed direct numerical simulations of smooth-wall turbulent flow in a straight square duct with a particular focus on the role of coherent structures in the generation and characterization of near-corner cells. They found that the buffer layer structures determine the distribution of mean streamwise vorticity, while the shape of the cells is influenced by larger-scale motions. 3 Field experimental set-up in a bend of the Tollense River near Lebbin (2009) for studying secondary currents by the research group of A.

5 SECONDARY CURRENTS, SEDIMENTS AND MORPHODYNAMICS Since the pioneering works of river navigation engineers, it is widely accepted that secondary flows play a significant role in channel deformation, bank stability, and sediment transport. One of the historically earliest explanations of secondary currents involved suspended sediments as a key factor of their generation (Vanoni, 1946). In his experiments, Vanoni (1946) noticed that the addition of a small amount of fine sediments in a clearwater open-channel flow led to the modification of the velocity distribution across the channel and formation of longitudinal streaks in the suspended sediment concentration field (three strong streaks at the channel centre and weaker streaks near the walls).

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