By Rick E. Ingram PhD, Ruth Ann Atchley PhD, Zindel V. Segal PhD
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Extra resources for Vulnerability to Depression: From Cognitive Neuroscience to Prevention and Treatment
Thus while stress may become more difficult to detect, it is still present and serves to elicit an episode, such as the case of the women whose depression is triggered by her favorite TV show being cancelled. This idea suggests that the association between diatheses and stress is not necessarily static, and more specifically, that processes involved may become more ipsative. That is, while a mega model suggests that high levels of both stress and diatheses are needed, a heightened sensitivity leads to an inverted link wherein diatheses are strengthened so that less stress becomes necessary to activate depression.
2003). This finding is in line with a number of studies that have found either significant correlations between measures of depressive and anxious states, or the occurrence of a significant degree of anxiety in depressed individuals (and vice versa) (see Clark, 1989). Similarly, those with anxiety disorders frequently get depressed. Interestingly, it seems to be the case for many instances of comorbidity that the anxiety disorder preceded the depressive disorder. , 1984). , 1993). Depression may be found in as many as 56% of individuals with anorexia (Hendren, 1983) and in approximately 24–33% of people with bulimia (Walsh, Roose, Glassman, Gladis, & Sadik, 1985).
We also examined the core features that characterize many of the assumptions about the nature of vulnerability. Given these features, what can we regard as a reasonable definition of vulnerability? For one, vulnerability is seen as a stable characteristic, but we also noted that stability does not imply permanence. That is, at least, under some circumstances, vulnerability levels may be altered in either positive or negative ways. Second, the stable nature of this construct suggests that vulnerability be viewed as residing internally.