By Shahina A. Ghazanfar, Martin Fisher (auth.), Shahina A. Ghazanfar, Martin Fisher (eds.)

The idea for this e-book got here from our ten years of trips and wanderings during the assorted landscapes of Arabia, and particularly via these of its hospitable southeastern nook, Oman. We owe a selected debt to Sultan Qaboos collage, which in this time has supplied us with either a stimulating operating setting and a house. Transliteration of Arabic position and different names into English script is a role fraught with problems. we now have 'accepted' spellings anyplace those weren't opposite to our logic, and in different situations we've got rendered names into Roman English script utilizing phonetic spellings. Our major job during this appreciate was once to make sure conformity among the fIfteen contributing authors. Diacritical indicators have generally been refrained from, given that their use is neither greatly nor quite simply understood. Arabic phrases which were more often than not taken into the English language, equivalent to 'sabkha' for a salt flat and 'wadi' for a valley with a seasonal watercourse, should not italicised in utilization. even if, different Arabic phrases that are sometimes utilized in English yet now not as widely recognized, equivalent to harrah for a basaltic lava box and hima for a standard grazing reserve, are italicised during the text.

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5°e 10Bmm Dubai (Bm) Arar (549m) 25 Baha (1652m) Bahrain (2m) ~d~~;d Guriat (504m) Hail (1002m) Jaaluni (154m) ~7:J~~~J~ . 4°e 47 mm . .. .... .. 5°C 63mm ~~ .. .. .. .. .. . ............ .. ' ...... '. 7°e 41mm . . . .. . . . .. K. 0oC 215mm Madinah (636m) 279°C 7Bmm ~ .. .......... . 1°e 125mm . 9°C 26mm bJ~~~~ R. Boe 115mm w ~~~~ ~ ...... . . .. . .. .. .. •••••••• . . .. .. ••••••••• " " . .. .. . . . .. .. . ....... .. •••••••• .. ... ... .........

The boundary in the northwest is the Gulf of Aqaba and the Jordan Rift, to the north the Taurus mountains of southern Turkey and to the northeast the Zagros mountains. e. a part of the earth's crust) is aligned NNW-SSE, the geomorphology of which is largely the result of uplift parallel to the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, with a resulting gentle tilt to the ENE. The greatest amount of uplift occurred in the southwest, creating mountains up to 3,760 m high in Yemen. The uplift has given rise to steep escarpments inland of the Red Sea coast.

Inter-annual variability is considerably less in the north, and at about the 25 th parallel, identified as the area northwards of which annual plants become more important in the vegetation of the deep sand areas (see Chapter 8), the coefficient of variation is 50-70%, falling to <50% in the northeast. An aspect of rainfall which has not been documented for the Peninsula, but which is fundamental to the timing of growth and flowering, is the 'spottiness' of desert rainfall. To the north of the Peninsula in the hyperarid (rainfall 30-35 mm yr-l) southern area of the Jordan rift valley; between one half and two thirds of the total rainfall is of a highly localized type, coming mostly from small convective cells (Sharon 1972).

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