By Daniel F. McCaffrey

Valueadded overview (VAA) platforms use statistical recommendations to research testscore facts; VAA info is meant to aid educators make extra educated judgements approximately curriculum and guide. The authors tested the rollout of Pennsylvania's VAA software, and located that, in its pilot section, this system had little impression on scholar fulfillment and obtained restricted use by means of so much principals and lecturers at colleges partaking within the application.

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GBM provided the estimated probabilities within groups defined by PVAAS status and school type. The weights from the two stages were averaged. The weighted means for the respondent sample of the variables used for weighting closely matched means of the entire sample. 1 also gives the response rates for the teachers (44 percent overall). In both the PVAAS and comparison sample, the response rates were very low. This allows for significant potential for bias from unobserved differences between the respondents and nonrespondents.

In each group, the upper end of the box is the 75th percentile of the distribution of standardized bias values across the covariates. The line in the center of the box is the median, and the low end of the box is the 25th percentile of the standardized biases. Ideally the box would be very tight around zero, indicating that across the covariates the differences between the groups would be consistently small. The lines above and below the boxes indicate about the 5th and 95th percentiles in the distribution of standardized biases, and the circles indicate outliers that are far from rest of the distribution.

PVAAS was just starting at the time our test-score data were collected; therefore, each successive cohort of students had an additional year of exposure to PVAAS and could potentially show greater effects of the program. Similarly, Cohort 2 had two fewer years of experience with PVAAS than Cohort 1, and results could differ by cohort. Every model included an indicator for PVAAS status (pilot or comparison district). The first model used data aggregated to the mean for each district by grade (5 or 8).

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