By William H. Smith

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Normal bud TABLE XI SYMPTOMS OF NUTRIENT ELEMENT DEFICIENCY" Conifer Element Nitrogen seedlings Foliage uniformly pale green, yellowish, or yellow; older foliage dying in some species. Stems somewhat reddish in young seedlings. Tree leaves often short Phosphorus Leaves sometimes pale, turning brown at tops. Sometimes purpling, becoming necrotic. Youngest foliage may remain green Potassium Leaves short, chlorotic, often brown tipped. Yellow tipping in some species In some species, older leaves dying, younger are green Magnesium Leaves yellowing and later browning at tips.

Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Vaartaja, O. (1954). Mineral deficiencies in a forest nursery. Bi-m. Progr. , Div. , Canada Dept. Agr. 10(2), 2. Walker, L. C. (1956). Foliage symptoms as indicators of potassium deficient soils. Forest Sci. 2, 113-120. Wilde, S. , and Voigt, G. K. (1952). Determination of color of nursery stock foliage by means of Munsell color charts. /. Forestry 50, 622-623. 6 AIR POLLUTION Air is an extremely important natural resource vital to plants and animals. During the course of a single day, in a layer extending 25 feet above the ground, 5 billion tons of air pass above the United States.

Parris, G. K. (1967). "Needle c u r l " of loblolly pine. Plant Disease Reptr. 5 1 , 805-806. Portz, H. L. (1967). Frost heaving of soil and plants. I. Incidence of frost heaving of forage plants and meteorological relationships. Agron. I. 59, 341-344. Salt, R. , and Kahn, S. (1967). Ice nucleation and propagation in spruce needles. Can. I. Botany 45, 1335-1346. Smith, A. V. (1961). " Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland. Stoekeler, J. H. (1965). Spring frost damage in young forest plantings near LaCrosse, Wisconsin.

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