By Dr. Miguel A. Nicolelis, Dr. Ronald M. Cicurel

During this monograph, a mathematician and a neurobiologist sign up for forces to handle probably the most the most important and arguable clinical questions of our occasions: can the beautiful capacities of the human mind be simulated by way of any electronic laptop? by means of combining mathematical, computational, neurobiological and evolutionary arguments, Ronald Cicurel and Miguel Nicolelis refute the prospect that any Turing computer will ever achieve the sort of simulation. As a part of their argument, the authors suggest a brand new idea for mind functionality: the Relativistic mind thought. This thought debts for many years of neurophysiological and mental findings and observations that before have challenged the dominant dogma in neuroscience. Altogether, this monograph includes the inaugural manifesto of a stream meant to stress the individuality of human nature whereas discrediting pseudo-scientific predictions that the alternative of people by way of machines is forthcoming. within the authors' opinion, the inaccurate and deceptive trust that electronic machines can emulate all human behaviors defines one of many maximum threats that society faces sooner or later to maintain our lifestyle, our human tradition and our freedom.

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1C). As such, individual neurons can participate in the computation of multiple functional or behavioral parameters at once. g. 1C). Next in line, the neural degeneracy principle posits that a given behavioral outcome, let’s say moving your arm to reach for a glass of water, can be produced, at different moments in time, by a distinct combination of neurons. In other words, multiple neural ensembles can yield the same behavioral outcome at different moments in time. In fact, some evidence suggests that the same combination of neurons is never repeated to produce the same movement.

Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10: 530-540, 2009. 1A), without any overt movement of their own bodies. In these experiments, animals could only succeed when the combined electrical activity of a population of cortical neurons was fed into the BMI. Any attempt to use a single neuron as the source of the motor control signals to the BMI failed to produce the correct robot arm movements. 1 –Principles of a brain–machine interface. (A) A schematic of a brain–machine interface (BMI) for reaching and grasping. Motor commands are extracted from cortical sensorimotor areas using multi-electrode implants that record neuronal discharges from large ensembles of cortical cells.

As such, the degree of flexibility and redundancy that these mechanisms confer to a brain entail a level of evolutionary advantage that cannot be rivaled if a central nervous system was defined simply by a digital component. At this point it is also important to emphasize that the relativistic brain model does not exclude other types of substrate-dependent computations, which could take place at other organizational levels of the brain, for instance, inside an individual neuron, an organelle or a membrane protein.

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