By C. U. M. Smith (auth.)

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It does mean, however, that the world was not envisaged to be composed of inert, passive matter, as we nowadays suppose. It was dynamic and teleological in its activity, just as a living organism is dynamic and teleological. Second, this insight was elaborated to give the notion of sympathetic correspondences between man (the microcosm) and the world (the macrocosm). Man and the world were not set over against each other as we have since come to believe; instead man was conceived to be immersed in the natural world, connected to it by multitudinous invisible bonds.

1957), p. 7. (7) A. E. Crawley, The Idea of the Soul, Black, London (1909), p. 43. The Problem ofLife 24 out: Few conceptions can show the universality and permanence, the creative power and morphological influence which have characterised throughout history the Idea of the Soul (8). In this book, of course, it is only the vagaries of the physiological soul that we shall follow. But once again the origin of the notion is broad and rich, containing many elements which later thought has analysed into separate and distinct strands.

The technological origins of science Of the Ionian cities flourishing at the beginning of the sixth century BC (see map, fig. 1), Miletus was pre-eminent. Nothing now remains save the ruins of a great theatre and some rose pink walls around what used to be the harbour. The Meander river, true to its name, has silted up the wide gulf on to which the thriving port once faced, and the ruins now look out over a broad swampy plain. But two and a half millennia ago things were very different. Instead of cicadas and lizards there was then the bustle of a thriving commercial city.

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