By David A. Lind, Scott P. Sanders (auth.)

Just over ten years in the past while the 1st drafts of this booklet have been being written, or even extra so many years after that because it used to be making its approach in the course of the book approach, alpine snowboarding used to be experiencing what ultimately grew to become an entire revolution in apparatus and tech­ nique: "shaped" or "parabolic" skis thoroughly took over the industry, or even particularly starting skiers anticipated to carve sleek turns as they schussed down the slopes. Re-reading our paintings with an eye fixed to revision, now we have been shocked to work out how our specialize in the physics of snowboarding within the first version al­ lowed us to acknowledge the elemental value of what have been then fairly novel adjustments in apparatus and process. The essence of the enhancement provided via formed skis is their larger sidecut radius. Our unique dialogue (then and now in Chapters three and four) of the the most important function ski's sidecut performs in carving a flip prompted us to put in writing, for the main half, as though the formed ski had regularly been in lifestyles. Sim­ ilarly, our curiosity within the geometry ofthe sidecut allowed us to debate snowboards in a few element besides, for the foremost to their skill to "shred" down the mountain is their deep sidecut.

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Scientific observations of these three types of snow covers are well established [3]. Rounded-Grain Metamorphism Rounded-grain metamorphism may occur at a wide range of temperature gradients; however, it has also been called equitemperature or ET The Snow Cover on the Ground / 23 metamorphism because it also occurs when the overall temperature change in a snow pack is small. Rounded-grain metamorphism changes the snow crystal structures in two significant ways: the snow grains become significantly rounded, and bonding occurs at the contact points between the grains, so the snow mass becomes progressively stronger over time.

Note how, in Fig. 8, the temperature in the mid-region is almost, but not quite, constant, making this the ET, or equitemperature, region of the snowpack. At the bottom of the pack, the ground heat, except in arctic regions, raises the temperature to ooe when the snow provides the necessary insulation from the cold atmosphere. As a general rule, 6 in. of snow cover provides sufficient insulation for such warming. Because of the more moderate climate and the greater compaction of the water-Iaden snowfall, mountains in maritime climates have snowpacks with relatively small temperature gradients, and TG snow is not often seen.

84 kg m- 3 at O°e. 7 kg m- 3 • Solid ice floats in water, with about 8% of the volume of the ice rising above the water. Water is one of a very few substances known for which the solid phase is less dense than the liquid. It is also significant that a large amount of heat must be removed from the liquid state to accommodate the structure change to the solid state. The kinetic energy of random motion that is present in the liquid state is not present in the solid state. Also, potential energy is reduced with the bond formation that accompanies the phase change from liquid polymers to crystal lattices of ice.

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