By S. Webb

The Physics of Conformal Radiotherapy: Advances in expertise offers an intensive review of conformal radiotherapy and organic modeling, concentrating on the underlying physics and method of 3-dimensional recommendations in radiation treatment. This rigorously written, authoritative account evaluates three-d remedy making plans, optimization, photon multileaf collimation, proton remedy, transit dosimetry, intensity-modulation innovations, and organic modeling. it truly is a useful educating advisor and reference for all clinical physicists and radiation oncologists/therapists that use conformal radiotherapy.

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E. nth choice of such beamweights) to be: where D,,(T) means the prescribed dose value at some point T in the patient and D,(T) denotes the computed dose at the same point at the nth iteration and the sum is taken over a large number M of specified dose points. I (T) is a term which allows the user to weight the importance of contributions to the cost from different parts of the body. For example it may be more important to have the dose conform in the PTV than in the OAR or conversely protection of the OAR may be the desired goal at the expense of some dose inhomogeneity in the PTV (so-called ‘conformal avoidance’).

Sitnulated annealing; general concepts and properties We choose to describe this technique in some detail both (i) because it has been widely used and (ii) because it embodies and illustrates many of the features common to the whole class of inverse-planning techniques (Webb 1995b,c, 1996). Simulated annealing is an iterative optimisation technique. It is a method of finding the global minimum of some function when the state-space of that function may possess multiple local minima. Because of this property it is regarded as superior to other iterative methods which may become trapped in a local minimum.

Although simulated annealing appeals for its wide flexibility, this very same ability to be tailored in many ways has a drawback. In the author’s experience it is necessary to experiment somewhat in choice of grain sizes, number of iterations and the tuning of the importance parameters in the cost function, which in turn depends on the desired clinical outcome. If the cost function is expected to have local minima, and uphill moves are to be included, then attention must be paid to the cooling scheme and the initial temperature (which determines both the initial and the total number of ‘wrong-way’ changes accepted).

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