By Frank Fenner

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The NP antigen is a mixture of molecular species. It appears to include the antigens that show serological crossreactivity between viruses belonging to all genera of vertebrate poxviruses that have been tested (Woodroofe and Fenner, 1962). , 1987). Virus-Coded Enzymes Because vaccinia virus replicates in the cytoplasm, it cannot utilize the variety of nuclear enzymes that are involved in DNA replication and transcription of most other DNA viruses. In consequence, the vaccinia virus genome codes for a large number of enzymes that subserve such functions (Table 2-1).

White Pock Mutants. In addition to the vaccinia virus mutants just described, deletion mutants of the rabbitpox strain of vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, and monkeypox virus have been isolated on the basis of their white pock phenotype. Wild-type strains of these three orthopoxviruses produce red or ulcerated pocks on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. 1 and 1% of the pocks, however, have a white appearance. Viruses isolated from such lesions produce exclusively white pocks and consequently these mutants have been designated "white pock" mutants.

B) Enveloped virion, as released from the infected cell and found in the extracellular medium. (C) Thin section of nonenveloped virion showing the biconcave core (c) and the two lateral bodies (lb). (D) Viral core, released after treatment of virions with Nonidet 40 and 2mercaptoethanol. Bar = 100 nm. [A, from Dales, 1963; B, from Payne and Kristensson, 1979; C, from Pogo and Dales, 1969; D, from Easterbrook, 1966 ] with uranyl chloride or indium chloride, the core could be seen to contain two or three broad cylindrical elements which appeared to be connected in a tight S shape.

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