By Scott Andrew Keefer

As the centenary of the Treaty of Versailles methods, this e-book provides the pre-1914 precursors to the interwar naval hands treaties bobbing up from the peace of 1919, delivering a clean standpoint on fingers keep watch over efforts via an interdisciplinary procedure. Interweaving old research with criminal research, Scott Keefer strains the British position within the improvement of naval palms keep an eye on, outlining the pragmatic international place of work ways in the direction of overseas legislation. by way of emphasizing what was once attainable in the present felony procedure instead of trying to create considerably strong overseas associations, statesmen crafted treaties to use the original speed of naval development. using previously-overlooked archival assets, this booklet investigates how the nice powers exploited treaties as parts of nationwide protection concepts. the result's a fuller research of the Hague Peace meetings, Anglo-German discussions, and lesser recognized neighborhood agreements from the yank nice Lakes to South the US, and a richer exploration of pre-1914 international relations, supplying insights into how a previous iteration perceived questions of battle and defence.

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Policies were developed in coordination with Admiralty experts, and framed around feasible restrictions. The British sought to reduce naval armaments on the Black Sea to the minimum level necessary for police duties. Russia continually pushed back, seeking as powerful a force as possible allowable under the Austrian ultimatum. Initially, Russia claimed that the limitation to light vessels would allow the construction of frigates, the smallest vessels capable of standing in the line of battle. Armed with a single deck of forty to fifty guns, a frigate was far smaller than the three decker ships-of-the-line.

73 By the mid-nineteenth century, when 69 Webster to Fox, Nov. 29, 1841, in Presidential Message, supra note 35. The United States also noted repeatedly that British ships were pierced to carry more than one gun, highlighting a problem with the armament limitation in the treaty. Mason to Calhoun, Sep. 4, 1844, in Presidential Message, supra note 35. Like the question of gun elevation which arose after the 1922 Washington Treaty, not every potential issue could be foreseen and incorporated into an agreement.

The October agreement related solely to naval armaments. Differences in levels of actual peacetime preparations made a meaningful comparison of French and British forces difficult. Great Britain maintained a number of “guard ships” in semi-active status, while France had fewer ships in service, but at a higher state of readiness. 26 The ultimate use of the term “le pied de l’établissement de la paix” was 23 Id. The “Peace Establishment” referred specifically to normal mobilized forces, later set at active forces as of January 1, 1787.

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