By Paul Dundas

The Indian faith of Jainism, whose relevant guideline consists of non-violence to all creatures, is without doubt one of the world's oldest and least-understood faiths. Dundas seems to be at Jainism in its social and doctrinal context, explaining its historical past, sects, scriptures and formality, and describing how the Jains have, over 2500 years, outlined themselves as a different spiritual neighborhood. This revised and improved version takes account of recent learn into Jainism.

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B. Nyberg). Humbach, H. Cama Oriental Institute (Bombay) 51:1–56 (controversial but with some illuminating matter). W. (1928) Zoroastrian Studies, the Iranian Religion and Various Monographs, New York: Macmillan, repr. 1965 (outdated but still in many respects sound). W. (1983) An introduction to ancient Iranian religion, Readings from the Avesta and Achaemenid Inscriptions, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. Meillet, A. Geuthner (outdated but in parts still valuable). Molé, M. (1963) Culte, mythe et cosmologie dans l’Iran ancien, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France (a massive, controversial study of Zoroastrianism treated phenomenologically, with many citations of texts).

Ohrmazd confronted Ahriman with a vision of the victorious end and his eventual powerlessness, and Ahriman fell prostrate and impotent for 3,000 years. e. 7 Creation was the only means by which the assault of the Evil Spirit could be overcome; but, as Ohrmazd knew, the creation of time would also allow the development of Ahriman’s creation. e. in the end) he will become powerless’. The first six of Ohrmazd’s spiritual beings are called Amahraspands, ‘Blessed Immortals’, whose names in Pahlavi translate spiritual perfections held as supreme virtues in the religion: Wahman, ‘Good Mind’; Ardwahisht, ‘Best Righteousness’; Shahrewar, ‘Good Dominion’; Spendarmad, ‘Blessed Devotion’; Hordād, ‘Wholeness’; Amurdād, ‘Immortality’, and a seventh was himself, ‘Ohrmazd’.

The last pair of the great six are Haurvatat, ‘Wholeness, Health’ and Ameretat, ‘(Long) Life, Immortality’. They have no epithets and are less prominent than the others, presumably because what they hypostatize is less immediately obtainable through moral striving. Their concepts appear to have evolved from Zarathushtra’s deep sense of the positive good of health and life. Like the others’, their names recur in the Gāthās and all six are named together, with Spenta Mainyu, in Y. e. ’ It would be possible in this verse to render haurvatat- and ameretat- as common nouns, and this is often the case with names of members of the Heptad in the Gāthās, for the virtues or qualities which they hypostatize not only belong to God and are divine but can be brought to dwell in men.

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