By Jacqueline Smith

A part of the technology Dictionary sequence, this paintings positive aspects greater than 2,000 cross-referenced entries, observed through 50 black-and-white illustrations that provide easy-to-understand details on more than a few climate- and climate-related themes.

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Ball clay A very plastic fine-textured gray or buff-colored clay that often contains some organic matter. Also called pipe clay, it is used to make ceramics. ball lightning A rare form of lightning that is not, as yet, adequately understood. Its very existence has been debated because most reported cases follow brilliant lightning flashes and so could be physiological in origin, an afterimage being produced in the eye. Reports of the lightning suggest a brilliant sphere with a diameter of 1 cm to 1 m, which can drift almost randomly at a few meters per second.

They probably arose from primitive archosaur reptiles (see Archaeopteryx) and most of their evolution is connected with adaptation for flight. The wings are formed from the whole forearm and three fused fingers (compare Pterosauria). They are warmblooded and have short tails, a large breast bone for the attachment of flight muscles, and light hollow bones. All modern birds are toothless but teeth were present in their Mesozoic ancestors. Because of the fragile nature of the skeleton, fossils are few.

Compare perihelion. antiperthite /an-tee-per-th’ÿt/ An intergrowth of orthoclase and albite feldspar in which the orthoclase occurs as patches in the albite host. See also exsolution; perthite. aphotic zone /ay-foh-tik/ Ocean depths below the maximum depth at which photosynthesis takes place because of lack of light, stretching from 200 m below sea level to the sea floor. See also disphotic zone; euphotic zone. antithetic fault A minor normal fault associated with a major fault but whose planes dip into the main fault plane.

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