By Tim Bartlett
The Adlard Coles booklet of Navigation is the proper reference for a person following an RYA navigation path, from Day Skipper via to Yachtmaster Offshore and for any seafarer requiring a data of navigation. This hugely sensible ebook explains every little thing the reader must recognize to navigate a yacht or motorboat from one port to a different accurately and safely. utilizing transparent diagrams, labored examples and color pictures all through, Tim Bartlett explains each one level of navigation, together with digital navigation.
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This posed a dilemma that was solved by a policy known as Selective Availability (SA). SA was not selective, nor did it have anything to do with availability: it involved the introduction of deliberate errors into the time and position information carried by the CA signal, to produce position errors of about 100 metres (2σ). SA was switched off in May 2000, with an assurance from the US Government Electronic Navigation Equipment Fig 27a As the price of computing power and displays has fallen, chart plotters such as this Raymarine C70 have largely taken over from stand-alone GPS receivers.
Keeping this alignment, slide the protractor up or down the meridian until one of these edges passes through the starting point of the line you wish to draw, and then pencil it in. This method sounds tortuous, but with practice it often turns out to be quicker and slightly more accurate than the other. Breton plotter The Breton plotter and its several variants are a more recent development, but have gained enormous popularity amongst amateur navigators. It consists of a rectangular piece of Fig 22a A Breton plotter incorporates a rotating protractor that can be aligned with the meridians and parallels to serve as a mobile compass rose.
If this second echo is strong enough to register on the echo sounder, it is called a reflection echo and appears as a relatively weak flash at twice the true depth. A particularly worrying type of spurious echo can be produced by hard bottoms when the water is so deep that the echo does not return until after the rotor has completed one full revolution. The returning echo produces a flash on the display which is considerably shallower than the true depth: if, for instance, the echo sounder is set to an operating range of 0–25 metres and the true depth is 30 metres, Electronic Navigation Equipment the indicated depth will be 5 metres.