By Bernard C. Patten

Structures research and Simulation in Ecology, quantity III, and its spouse, quantity IV, grew out of a symposium, Modeling and research of Ecosystems, held on the collage of Georgia, 1-3 March 1973. the needs of the assembly have been to (i) evaluation the prestige of environment modeling, simulation, and research; (ii) supply a discussion board for interplay among U.S. overseas organic application (IBP) Biome modeling courses and chosen non-IBP investigations concerning structures techniques to surroundings research; and (iii) establish and advertise discussion on key concerns in macrosystem modeling. the amount is prepared into components. half I treats atmosphere modeling within the U.S. IBP. The introductory bankruptcy is by way of 5 chapters describing grassland, deciduous wooded area, wilderness, tundra, and coniferous woodland biome modeling. The concluding bankruptcy is one among critique and review. half II is dedicated quite often to freshwater ecosystems, grading into the estuarine process within the final bankruptcy. The 5 chapters of this part surround an easy thermal environment, small forest streams, a reservoir, one of many nice Lakes, a lake reclaimed from eutrophication, and an immense estuary below tension of human influence.

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In comparing the model results to field and laboratory experiments, the dynamics of the solution-labile interchange appear well represented. The process of uptake by plant roots is adequately represented. In other aspects confidence declines because of inadequate information regarding the biological mechanisms. Specifical­ ly, the rate of movement of soil organic material into the solution pool 36 GEORGE S. —^ \ J _ 1 ! i 730 Time (days) FIG. 13. Phosphorus dynamics. depends on decomposer activity.

For example, it should be possible to introduce a new word into the 2 . MODELS IN THE GRASSLAND BIOME STUDY 45 language such as " P L A N T (ply p2, . . , p k ) " Once the several compart­ ments of P L A N T have been coded, perhaps as illustrated in Fig. 6, then any number of such submodels with appropriate parameterizations should be useable. Third, the system should be able to learn. This means more than being dynamic in the sense above, and includes the capability of evolving— retaining successful components and rejecting others.

However, because of a commitment to deter­ minism, the models are typically developed and exercised without much regard for ignorance of the laws as might be represented by stochastic variations. Once the model is developed, however, experiments are performed allowing for stochastic variation of many parameters and vari­ ables. These experiments compensate for nondeterminism that comes from either ignorance or absence of the laws controlling the ecosystem. E. LANGUAGES AND COMMUNICATION The point was made above that difficulty had been encountered in later developments of PWNEE because of implementation decisions that had been made very early.

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