By George S. Avery
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Extra resources for Survey of Biological Progress, Vol. 2
The effect of x-irradiation on limb regeneration has been studied by Brunst and others in Amphibia (Brunst, 1950). Irradiation of normal limbs prevents regeneration following amputation and irradiation of regenerating limbs causes rapid regression. Smaller doses may inhibit cell division and hence growth but show no effect on differentiation. In fact there is evidence that, under certain conditions, differentiation is promoted by radiation of embryonic cells (Tansley, Spear and Glucksmann, 1937).
Suppl. 1, 35: 1-210. Tabulation of Available Data Relative to Radiation Biology. 1949. Submitted by NEPA Medical Advisory Panel. NEPA Document No. 1019. Timofeef-Ressovsky, N. W. 1937. Experimentelle Mutationforschung in der Verer bungslehre. Steinkopff, Dresden and Leipzig. Timofeef-Ressovsky, N. , and Zimmer, K. G. 1947. Biophysik. I. Das Treffer prinzip in der Biologic S. Hirzel Verlag, Leipzig. Über, F. M. 1950. Biophysical Research Methods. Interscience, New York. United Nations Atomic Energy Commission.
The exact figure is not known. Some data is available for mice (Charles, 1950; Russell, 1951). 34 A. H . SPARROW AND B . A. RUBIN higher plants and mammals. This indicates that the ability of a gene to mutate is generally independent of the mechanism by which the genie com plement is shuffled about or the mode of transmittal of the hereditary mate rial from one generation to the next. The gene is the ultimate unit of mutation and there is no method known to date which can completely pro tect it from either spontaneous or induced mutation.