By Girma Biresaw, K.L. Mittal
Surfactants play quite a few serious roles in tribology. as well as controlling friction and put on, in addition they let for regulate of a variety of houses of lubricants, reminiscent of emulsification/demulsification, bioresistance, oxidation resistance, and rust/corrosion prevention. This booklet explains fresh advances within the position of surfactants in the purview of tribology, with an emphasis on product improvement. contains Theoretical, Experimental, and Technological Advances supplying a special exploration of the nexus among surfactants and tribology, this article represents the cumulative services of top scientists and technologists engaged within the learn of surfactants in variegated tribological phenomena. equipped thematically for simple reference, the amount covers— · basics of surfactants · Tribological points of micro- and nanodevices, together with micro-patterns of two-dimensional asperity arrays, MEMS, NEMS, and magnetic recording units · Self-assembled monolayers and ultra-thin movies proper to tribological phenomena, together with elements of organosilane monolayers, ultrathin self-assembled motion pictures, super-hydrophobic motion pictures, MoDTC/ZDDP tribofilms, and surfactant-coated copper nanoparticles · Polymeric and biobased surfactants, masking a variety of tribological features relating to polymeric gels, elastomers sliding opposed to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, agriculture-based amphiphiles, vegetable oils, and biobased greases · Surfactant adsorption and aggregation suitable to tribological phenomena, akin to the layout of surfactants for lubrication, aqueous non-ionic surfactant-based lubricants, adsorption and aggregation kinetics, surfactant and polymer nanostructures, and engine oils the 1st connection with comprehensively deal with the relevance of surfactants in tribology, this publication is a useful consultant for people engaged in examine, improvement, and production, in particular these engaged within the learn of MEMS, NEMS, SAMs, andbiodevices.
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Extra resources for Surfactants in Tribology, 2 Volume Set: Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 1
1c. The microsurface roughness of asperities was extremely large for fig. 1b due to the different processing conditions. The distance between adjacent peaks was constant in fig. 1 and was about 240 nm for each asperity array, which was determined from the milling conditions. In fig. 2, the ratio of mound width to total width of mound and groove was varied by varying the spacing between the grooves. The depth of the grooves was relatively constant and was 20–27 nm. 3 AFM images of periodic arrays of platinum asperities fabricated on a silicon plate.
7 µm2 from the image. (a) Side view, (b) flat square of the scanning probe. 7 Force–curve technique used to determine the pull-off force. The force is calculated using the distance H and the spring constant of the cantilever. 20 × 10–9 Sliding conditions External normal load (nN) Raster scan area (µm2) Sliding speed (µm/s) Relative humidity (%) ∼5 (0 to 10) 2×2 2 20–56 examining the difference in the pull-off force between the patterns, first we scanned an area of 20 × 20 µm2 including some patterns.
15 shows AFM images of the sputtered pattern of the platinum asperities. The patterns shown in figs. 3b changed to figs. 15b, respectively. As the height of the asperity decreases, the small irregular ridges completely disappear in fig. 15. 15 AFM images of platinum asperity arrays after sputtering. The shape of platinum asperity arrays shown in fig. 3 changed after removing the unreacted material. The height of the asperity decreased and the asperity peaks became flat. 2-nm asperity height. 16a shows the no-scan pull-off force on the sputtered platinum patterns (fig.