By Janet Rothenberg Pack

Metropolitan development and improvement effects from a fancy mixture of elements: for instance, emerging earning, moving populations, buyer personal tastes and industry restructuring, the standard of faculties, the positioning of cheap housing, and the normal topography of a metropolitan quarter. but significant federal and nation spending courses, tax bills, and regulatory and administrative regulations may also essentially form development styles. Sunbelt/Frostbelt examines the position of presidency regulations and industry forces in shaping progress styles in 5 metropolitan parts: Chicago, la, Philadelphia, Phoenix, and Pittsburgh. It concludes with a glance at how those diversified parts have attempted to install position coverage reforms to deal with their specified progress demanding situations. participants contain a group of researchers from Arizona country collage, Peter Dreier (Occidental College), Robert E. Gleeson (Northern Illinois University), Joseph Gyourko (University of Pennsylvania), Pascale Joassart-Marcelli (University of Massachusetts, Boston), Manuel Pastor Jr. (University of California, Santa Cruz), Jerry R. Paytas (Carnegie Mellon University), Joseph Persky and Kimberly Schaffer (University of Illinois at Chicago), Anita A. Summers (University of Pennsylvania), Wim Wiewel (University of Baltimore), and Jennifer Wolch (University of Southern California).

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Extra resources for Sunbelt Frostbelt: Public Policies and Market Forces in Metropolitan Development (James A. Johnson Metro) (James A. Johnson Metro)

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39 Compared with most other metropolitan areas observed, the Chicago region is losing ground in state equalization policies. 41 The degree of equalization in the distribution of state revenues also decreased dramatically in the 1980s. By 1990 the amount of variation in state funding of Illinois school districts was two times that of Wisconsin and Indiana, and three and one-half times that of Michigan. In fact, in a study of state education expenditures in 1989–90, only Alaska had more variation.

The greatest proportion of urbanized land growth and natural and farmland conversion took place on the fringes of the Chicago metropolitan area, thirty to sixty-five kilometers (and beyond) from the city of Chicago. These land-use changes described above are related to shifting populations and development at lower densities. As elsewhere, over the past half-century there has been a huge population shift from city to suburbs. 6 million in 1950, constituting 70 percent of metropolitan area residents.

Persky and Wiewel (2000). 45 46 WIEWEL, PERSKY, AND SCHAFFER Although there are many types of impact fees, the term usually describes fees paid to municipalities by developers to offset the marginal costs associated with new development—requirements for new infrastructure or additional demands on schools. Because such fees attempt to make new development “pay for itself” and reduce the fiscal impact of new growth on current residents, impact fees are popular in many states. 47 While many Illinois municipalities do impose some type of impact fee on developers, many forgo monetary fees and are content to receive dedications for park and school land, which may be worth less than the public costs they are meant to offset.

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