By Irene González Hernández, Rudolf Komm, Alexei Pevtsov, John Leibacher

Presents an outline of modern examine at the unique of sunlight phenomena that impact Earth’s technological systems.

This topical factor relies at the displays given on the twenty sixth nationwide sun Observatory (NSO) summer time Workshop held on the nationwide sunlight Observatory/Sacramento height, New Mexico, united states from 30 April to four may possibly 2012. This specific discussion board introduced jointly specialists in several components of sun and area physics to assist in constructing a whole photo of the foundation of sunlight phenomena that have an effect on Earth’s technological platforms. The articles comprise idea, version and remark examine at the beginning of the sunlight job and its cycle, in addition to a dialogue on tips to comprise the examine into space-weather forecasting tools.

This quantity is geared toward graduate scholars and researchers lively in sun physics and house science.

Previously released in Solar Physics, Vol. 289/2, 2014.

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The annulus widths are determined by ray theory from the paths of acoustic modes diverging from the subsurface focus point and spanning a range of “impact angles” ± 45° from the horizontal direction (see Figure 2). 5 we employ different azimuthal extents of the pupil arcs. v) For each pupil quadrant [P ], the ingression [H−P ] and egression [H+P ] amplitudes are estimated by convolutions of the data cube [ ] with GP− and GP+ , respectively, in both time and the two spatial coordinates. This is performed using a plane-parallel approxˆ P± and ˆ (Lindsey and Braun, 2000) in the 3D imation by the simple product of G Reprinted from the journal 26 Helioseismic Holography of an Artificial Perturbation Table 1 Pupil sizes, modes, and filter parameters.

Figure 8 shows that there is remarkable agreement between the mean travel-time shifts as determined from the phase method and the Gabor fits. We note that fine tuning the initial guesses based on the peaks of the cross-covariance functions to the left (or right) of the central peak yields phase times [τgf ] that agree to within a fraction of a second of the times obtained using the central peak minus (or plus) the period [2π/ω0 ]. Thus, due to statistical fluctuations in the mean frequency, maps made using fits to these peaks are noisier than maps made using the central peak.

This is also confirmed by computing the correlation coefficient between maps for different depths. 64 using the flattop filter. These correlation coefficients were computed with the perturbation masked out, so they measure correlations in the background realization noise. Consistently higher correlation coefficients for all of the flat-top filtered results over this depth range (45 – 65 Mm) are observed. In general, the use of either filter produces somewhat less noise (as determined from the standard deviation of the realization noise outside of the perturbation) than using no filter, as expected (see Figure 10d).

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