By Peter Kreeft
Modelling Socrates because the excellent instructor for the newbie and Socratic approach because the perfect approach. Introducing philosophical concerns besides common sense by means of being philosophical approximately good judgment and logical approximately philosophy. providing a whole approach of classical Aristotelian common sense, the common sense of normal language and of the 4 language arts: analyzing, writing, listening and conversing.
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Within the overdue Nineteen Nineties, AI witnessed an expanding use of the time period 'argumentation' inside its bounds: in traditional language processing, in consumer interface layout, in common sense programming and nonmonotonic reasoning, in Al's interface with the criminal neighborhood, and within the newly rising box of multi-agent platforms.
Within the final decade, the well-known challenge of the regress of purposes has back to well-known attention in epistemology. And with the go back of the matter, assessment of the choices to be had for its answer is started anew. Reason’s regress challenge, approximately positioned, is if one has stable purposes to think whatever, one should have stable cause to carry these purposes are strong.
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A Marxist would distinguish thoughts supposedly produced by a Capitalist system from those produced by a Communist system. But from the viewpoint of logic, we distinguish three kinds of thoughts, three "acts of the mind": 1. Simple apprehension 2. Judging 3. Reasoning "Simple apprehension" is a technical term. ' Animals apparently cannot perform this act of understanding; if they can, they do not express it in words. Computers certainly cannot do this; a computer no more understands what you program into it than a library building understands the information in the books you put into it.
In fact, "dogs do not have four legs" also implies that Lassie is a dog! Even false statements, even statements that are self-contradictory, like "Grass is not grass," validly imply any true conclusion in symbolic logic. " "Dogs do not have four legs" implies that Lassie is a dog, and also that Lassie is not a dog, and that 2 plus 2 are 4, and that 2 plus 2 are not 4. " Ironically, "material implication" means exactly the opposite of what it seems to mean. It means that the matter, or content, of a statement is totally irrelevant to its logically implying or being implied by other statements.
What is it? Is it? and Why is it? These are dealt with in the three parts of logic. The part that most clearly distinguishes humans from computers is the first: understanding a "what," an "essence," the nature of a thing. Computers understand nothing; they merely store, process, relate, and regurgitate data. You don't really think there is a little spirit somewhere inside your hand-held calculator, do you? But the world's most complex computer has nothing qualitatively more in it than that, only quantitatively more.