By Helmut Haberl, Marina Fischer-kowalski

Conceptualizing, gazing and evaluating socioecological transitions / Marina Fischer-Kowalski, Helmut Haberl -- Land-use swap and socioeconomic metabolism : a macro view of Austria 1830-2000 / Fridolin Krausmann, Helmut Haberl -- The fossil fuel-powered carbon sink : carbon flows and Austria's vigorous metabolism in a long term point of view / Karl-Heinz Erb, Helmut Haberl, Fridolin Krausmann -- the nice transformation : a socio-metabolic analyzing of the industrialization of the uk / Heinz Schandl, Fridolin Krausmann -- The neighborhood base of the ancient agrarian : commercial transition and the interplay among scales / Helmut Haberl, Fridolin Krausmann -- The neighborhood base of transitions in constructing international locations / Clemens M. Grunbuhel, Simron J. Singh, Marina Fischer-Kowalski -- Transition in a modern context : styles of improvement in a globalizing international / Nina Eisenmenger, Jesus Ramos Martin, Heinz Schandl -- Conclusions : most likely and not likely pasts, attainable and very unlikely futures / Marina Fischer-Kowalski, Helmut Haberl, Fridolin Krausmann

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As discussed in Chapter 8, among the limiting factors are the comparatively low energy yield per unit of land area, the low energy density of biomass and the high energy costs of transport under the conditions of the agrarian regime. The main bottleneck for growth appears to be the problem of maintaining soil fertility without fossil-fuel-derived energy and nutrient subsidies. This only allows for comparatively low energy yields per unit of land area and requires a positive energetic return of agriculture per unit of energy invested (Pimentel and Pimentel 1996).

Austria has only minor domestic deposits of coal, oil and gas. Coal resources are restricted to rather small deposits of lowquality coal (lignite). Oil and gas deposits are also only small and contribute today only about 10 to 20 per cent of domestic energy consumption. Therefore, the transition to a fossil-fuel-based energy regime also entailed a considerable reliance on imports. 38 Socioecological transitions and global change To discuss this issue it is important to remember that the ‘Austria’ to which we refer is a constructed entity for the period before World War I, not a nation state.

See also the book series Routledge Studies of Societies in Transition. It is interesting to note that in the Communist Manifesto (Marx and Engels [1847] 1998) the advent of socialism appears as inevitable as the advent of capitalism before it. In his later writings, Marx became more cautious about imputing such mechanics to history. Analytically, these approaches owe much to the research tradition on patterns of technological change in the past, such as Grübler (1994); Nakicenovic (1990); Perez (1983).

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