By Raymond L. M. Lee

This article examines the improvement and perform of Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity in Malaysia. Its analyses supply an perception into how demonstrated and charismatic religions healthy into the framework of modernization and secularization in the course of the global.

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Extra resources for Sacred Tensions: Modernity and Religious Transformation in Malaysia (Studies in Comparative Religion)

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Rodger and R. J. Wilkinson, British policy stressed the necessity of a four-year primary-school system based on the Malay vernacular. This system initially met with much resistance from many Malays who saw little value in formal education (Stevenson 1975:34). It was only through the implementation of compulsory education, a system in which Malay parents were fined for their children's truancy, that Malay vernacular education became firmly established in the late nineteenth century (Stevenson 1975:3843).

In 1985 fourteen Malay villagers from Memali in Kedah were killed by security forces when they attempted to prevent a charismatic leader from being arrested. In an incident that occurred in 1978, violence between iconoclasts from an Islamic charismatic group and Indian guards of a Hindu temple resulted in several deaths among the former. This was the only case of charismatic violence between different religious groups. However, when charismatic movements in Islam gain a certain degree of rationalizationin terms of a systematic organization of a growing membership, nonviolent strategies that do not invite outright government repression, and the development of international links with monetary supportthey pose a greater threat to the establishment because the institutionalization of charismatic power is more difficult to dislodge than that characterized by a spontaneous outburst.

2009 12:28:25] page_33 < previous page page_33 next page > Page 33 moting an individualistic ethic that emphasized the rights of each and every Muslim. Ideationally, these critiques were possible because the theocentrism stemming from Middle Eastern reformism permitted a worldview that attributed activism and responsibility to individuals rather than concentrating them in the hands of god-kings. Now individuals' self-interests were no longer seen as totally subordinate to those of the elite.

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