By Knut Stamnes, Jakob J. Stamnes

This booklet is devoted to the formula and answer of ahead and inverse difficulties concerning coupled media, and offers examples of the way to resolve concrete difficulties in environmental distant sensing of coupled atmosphere-surface systems.

The authors speak about radiative move in coupled media corresponding to the atmosphere-ocean approach with Lambertian besides non-Lambertian reflecting surfaces on the reduce boundary. The spectral variety from the ultraviolet to the microwave area of the electromagnetic spectrum is taken into account, as are multi-spectral in addition to hyperspectral distant sensing, whereas options of the ahead challenge for unpolarized and polarized radiation are mentioned intimately.

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Additional info for Radiative Transfer in Coupled Environmental Systems: An Introduction to Forward and Inverse Modeling

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The scalar wave equation in spherical polar coordinates is 166 As shown in Appendix A, from the solutions of the scalar wave equation in spherical polar coordinates, one may construct even and odd generating functions: 167 where are associated Legendre functions of the first kind of degree and order , are spherical Bessel functions of the first kind [ ], second kind [ ], or third kind [ or ]. Eqs. Here the coefficients and of the field inside the sphere and the scattering coefficients and are to be determined.

For atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery, Gordon and co-workers [35, 108] selected 16 candidate aerosol models consisting of several types of particles, each having its own characteristic chemical composition, size distribution, and hygroscopicity. (105)] of fine mode particles becomes . Similarly, the change in refractive index with RH can be determined from (Hänel [112]): 220 where and are the complex refractive indices of water and dry aerosols, respectively, and and are the radii of the aerosols in the dry state and at the given RH, respectively.

Here, , with and being, respectively, the wavelength in vacuum and the refractive index of the surrounding medium. 3 Scattering Matrix The time-averaged Poynting vector of the field in the medium surrounding the particle is 121 where 122 so that 123 124 125 where and are the Poynting vectors of the incident and scattered fields, respectively, whereas is the Poynting vector of the field that is due to the interaction between the incident and scattered fields. (117) and (124), it follows that 127 where is the solid angle subtended by the detector.

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