By Peter O. Gray

The recent variation of Gray's acclaimed textual content, that includes dramatic new assurance of sensation and belief and new media instruments that actively contain scholars in mental examine.

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Instead of manipulating disciplinary style, she measured it. Through questionnaires and home observations, Baumrind classified disciplinary styles into three categories: authoritarian (high exertion of parental power), authoritative (a kinder and more democratic style, but with the parents still clearly in charge), and permissive (parental laxity in the face of their children’s disruptive behaviors). She also rated the children on various aspects of behavior, such as cooperation and friendliness, through observations in their nursery schools.

As a partial control in some psychotherapy experiments, subjects in the nonpsychotherapy group are given a fake form of therapy designed to induce subject expectancies equivalent to those induced by actual psychotherapy. In the depression experiment described earlier, subjects were not blind about their treatment. qxp 44 PART 1 ■ 10/13/05 2:06 PM Page 44 THE ADAPTIVENESS OF BEHAVIOR psychotherapy groups did not receive fake psychotherapy. 1 might possibly, therefore, be placebo effects, that is, subject-expectancy effects caused by subjects’ beliefs that the treatment would help them.

In 1936, in the midst of the Great Depression, people who could afford magazine subscriptions and telephones may indeed have favored Landon, but the great majority of voters, as the election showed, did not. Avoiding Measurement Bias <<< Psychological researchers must give careful thought to their measures of behavior. A good measure is reliable and valid. Reliability has to do with measurement error, not bias. A measure is reliable to the degree that it yields similar results each time it is used with a particular subject under a particular set of conditions.

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