By George Alexander Kennedy
The progymnasmata have been basic to the educating of prose composition and simple rhetoric in ecu colleges from the Hellenistic interval to early smooth instances. George A. Kennedy, considered one of the world’s prime students of historical rhetoric, offers during this quantity an English translation of 4 Greek treatises written in the course of the time of the Roman empire yet studied during the Roman and Byzantine periods—works attributed to Theon, Hermogenes, Aphthonius, and Nicolaus.
Also integrated during this very important quantity are translations of the fragments of Sopatros’ treatise in addition to John of Sardis’ observation on those routines. a number of of those works have by no means earlier than been translated into English and are the following made available to the final reader for the 1st time. The curriculum defined in those works supplied uncomplicated education in oral and written expression, but additionally inculcated cultural values and an figuring out of the traditional literary forms—fable, narrative, chreia, ecphrasis, comparability, and so on—that have been the construction blocks of the epics, dramas, histories, and lyric poetry attribute of the Greco-Roman interval. The behavior of considering and writing realized in colleges utilizing the progymnasmata molded not just the secular literature of the Greeks and Romans, but additionally the writings of the early Christians throughout the patristic interval.
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After proposing the simple meaning of the conclusion, we shall assign the young to imagine a fable  suitable to the material at hand. They will be able to do this readily when their minds have been filled with many fables, having taken some from ancient writings, having only heard others, and having invented some by themselves. We shall refute and confirm as follows. Since even the fablemaker himself acknowledges that what he writes is false and impossible, though plausible and useful, one should refute by showing that what he says is implausible and not beneficial, and one should confirm in the opposite way.
Chreias are practiced by restatement, grammatical inflection, comment, and contradiction, and we expand and compress the chreia, and in addition (at a later stage in study) we refute and confirm. Practice by restatement is self-evident; for we try to express the assigned chreia, as best we can, with the same words (as in the version given us) or with others in the clearest way. Inflection takes many forms; for we change the person in the chreia into all three numbers and do this in several ways: (expressing it as) one person speaking about one or two or more; and conversely two speaking about one and two and more, and also plural persons speaking about one and two and more.
Also, Thucydides, after starting with the events about Epidamnus, went back to the fifty years before the war and then took up the Peloponnesian war. But it is also possible to begin from the end and go to events in the middle and thus to come down to the beginning. ” Then he narrates the reasons, explaining that the king of the Persians had requested whoever was the best eye doctor from the king of the Egyptians. The natural order of the narration would be first to mention the Persian king’s ophthalmia and how he sent  to Egypt to request an eye doctor from the ruler there and the ruler sent this man.