By Henry S. Richardson

How should still we cause approximately what we do? the reply provided via so much contemporary philosophy, in addition to such disciplines as determination conception, welfare economics, and political technology, is that we must always opt for effective ability to our ends. despite the fact that, if we ask how we should always make a decision which ends up or objectives to try at, those common theoretical techniques are silent. Henry Richardson argues that we will be able to ascertain our ends rationally. He constructs a wealthy and unique thought of the way we will be able to cause approximately what to hunt for its personal sake as a last target. Richardson defuses the counterarguments for the bounds of rational deliberation, and develops attention-grabbing rules approximately how his version should be prolonged to interpersonal deliberation of ends, taking him to the borders of political thought.

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The process is similar to a lawsuit in which the judge identifies the elements he regards as valid in the claims of the opposed parties. For Kant as well as for Hegel, opinions are supposed to be excluded from philosophy, which aims at rationality. But to explain the divergencies that are systematically encountered in the history of philosophy, we need only call these opinions the natural illusions of reason as submitted to the tribunal of critical reason (as in Kant) or successive moments in the progress of reason toward Absolute Spirit (as in Hegel).

63 In what follows, I would like to sketch how the positivist climate of logical empiricism makes possible a new, or renovated, conception of rhetoric. Within the perspective of neopositivism, the rational is restricted to what experience and formal logic enable us to verify and demonstrate. As a result, the vast sphere of all that is concerned with action - except for the choice of the most adequate means to reach a designated end - is turned over to the irrational. The very idea of a reasonable decision has no meaning and cannot even be defined satisfactorily with respect to the whole action in which it occurs.

By admitting the soundness of Hume's analysis, I found myself in a situation similar to Kant's. If Hume is right in maintaining that empiricism cannot provide a basis for either science or morals, must we not then look to other than empirical methods to justify them? Similarly, if experience and calculation, combined according to the precepts of logical empiricism, leave no place for practical reason and do not enable us to justify our decisions and choices, must we not seek other techniques of reasoning for that purpose?

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