By James F. Sutcliffe

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Conversely, sap concentration remains high in the spring until after the time when sensitivity to low temperature has increased. Thus it seems likely that in several species at any rate sap concentration is oflittle significance in determining frost resistance. An alternative explanation of frost tolerance is that a higher proportion of the water in hardy plants is bound to cell constituents and so does not freeze as readily as that in tender plants where it is mainly in a free state. In recent years the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to study the state of water in plant tissues.

G. in carrots and is said to be a device for preventing excessive loss of heat on cold nights. In such cases the two sides of the inflorescence stalk must respond differentially to temperature. The stalks fail to respond to change in temperature once the fruit has been set. The leaves of some plants also r FRUIT RIPENING AND STORAGE 39 respond to falling temperature by undergoing so-called 'sleep movements' which cause a reduction in the exposed surface area and cut down the loss of heat at night.

During stratification the embryo may grow, but in several cases no visible morphological changes occur in the seed. There are, however, profound changes in chemical composition. ) seeds, most of the dry matter is translocated from the endosperm into the cotyledons during stratification. There are also significant changes in some seeds in the distribution and proportions of various nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds. g. hazel seeds, an increase in growth-promoters such as cvtokinins has been reported.

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