By C P Sharma

Extraordinary development has been made in our realizing of different and various ways that micronutrients modify or keep an eye on the functioning of vegetation and convey a big selection of responses allowing quantitative and qualitative adjustments in plant yield. This e-book addresses biochemical and physiological roles of micronutrients in crops and the varied ways that they react to obstacles in micronutrients offer, contributing to worldwide constraints in crop construction. The e-book is gifted in elements. half I offers with roles of micronutrients and the adjustments brought about in vegetation in accordance with their insufficient offer. half II addresses the criteria contributing to micronutrients deficiency, their analysis, assessment and administration via soil ? and plant ?based ways.

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Leaves of iron-deficient plants show a decrease in ferredoxin (Alcaraz et al. 1985; Huang et al. 1992) and cytochrome content per unit area (Spiller and Terry, 1980). A study of iron deficiency effect on photosynthetic apparatus of Chlamydomonas reinhardti by Moseley et al. (2002) showed a disconnection of the LHC I antenna from photosystem I (PSI) even before the iron-deficient cells developed chlorosis. The authors attributed this to observed changes in physical properties of the PS I-K. On persistence of iron deficiency, the photosynthetic apparatus undergoes some adaptive changes, such as degradation of existing proteins coupled to synthesis of new proteins that leads to a new steady state with decreased stoichiometry of electron transport complexes.

1995). Cytochrome P450s have also been involved in the tryptophandependent, indole-3-acetonitrile pathway of IAA biosynthesis. Hull et al. (2000) have cloned and characterized two Arabidopsis genes C Y P 79 B2 and CYP 79 B3 which encode the two P450 enzymes that catalyze the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxine which, in turn, is converted to indole-3-acetonitrile,the immediate precursor of IAA. Indole3-acetonitrile is also considered a likely precursor of glucosinolates. The cytochrome P450s are also involved in the biosynthesis of brassinosteroids (Crozier et al.

1985) have described low activity of suberin specific peroxidases in roots of iron-deficient beans. Catalase has been found to be more responsive to iron-deficiency than peroxidase (Agarwala et al. 1965; Machold, 1968; Bisht et al. 2002a). Low activity of catalase is also obtained in plants showing lime-induced chlorosis (Bertamini et al. 2002) or when they are subjected to excess supply of heavy metals (Agarwala et al. 1977a; Pandey and Sharma, 2002b, 2003). While a decrease in catalase activity is a universal response to iron deficiency, it is not always so in case of peroxidase.

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