By Kristina A. Schierenbeck

Phylogeography of California examines the evolution of various taxa—ancient and up to date, local and migratory—to elucidate evolutionary occasions either significant and minor that formed the distribution, radiation, and speciation of the biota of California. The ebook additionally translates evolutionary background in a geological context and stories new and rising phylogeographic styles. targeting a area that's outlined via actual and political limitations, Kristina A. Schierenbeck presents a phylogeographic survey of California’s varied wildlife based on their significant organismal teams. lifestyles historical past and ecological features, which play well known roles within the numerous results for respective clades, also are thought of through the paintings. aiding students and researchers who learn evolutionary diversification, the publication analyzes learn that is helping investigate one of many significant demanding situations in phylogeographic reports: figuring out alterations in inhabitants constructions formed through geological and geographical techniques. California is one in every of in simple terms twenty-five stated organic hotspots around the globe, and the phylogeographic historical past of the country could be extrapolated to review different areas in western North the USA. extra attention is given to implications for conservation, thoughts in regards to the biogeographic provinces that approximately outline the kingdom of California, and predictions regarding weather change.

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Estuarine environments were forming and dominated by large members of the Insecta and plants from the Equistaceae (horsetails), Pteridophyta (ferns), Coniferophyta (conifers), Lycophyta (club mosses), and Pteridospermatophyta (extinct seed ferns). All major continents collide to form the supercontinent Pangaea around the Permian (299–251 Ma). 2). The Permian period ended in the greatest extinction in the history of the earth, with over 90 percent of all marine and 70 percent of all terrestrial genera becoming extinct.

Willow, Salicaceae), Populus sp. (cottonwood, Salicaceae), Arbutus menziesii (madrone, Ericaceae), and Alnus sp. (alder, Betulaceae) (Wolfe 1995). Oligocene Epoch (35–25 Ma) The Oligocene Epoch was a time of continued but gradual uplift of the Sierra Nevada, movement of the coastline west, and some volcanic activity. indd 40 24/07/14 3:17 PM cenozoic era: paleogene and neogene periods 41 in some areas. The drop of global mean temperatures 3–4°C in about 300,000 years during the early Oligocene was due, in part, to decreases in atmospheric CO2 and resulted in cooler and drier climates and the expansion of xeric plant communities (Zanazzi et al.

Oligocene Epoch (35–25 Ma) The Oligocene Epoch was a time of continued but gradual uplift of the Sierra Nevada, movement of the coastline west, and some volcanic activity. indd 40 24/07/14 3:17 PM cenozoic era: paleogene and neogene periods 41 in some areas. The drop of global mean temperatures 3–4°C in about 300,000 years during the early Oligocene was due, in part, to decreases in atmospheric CO2 and resulted in cooler and drier climates and the expansion of xeric plant communities (Zanazzi et al.

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