By Paul Vincent Spade (auth.)
2 Peter of Aillyl wrote his options and Insolubles, in keeping with the simplest three estimate, in 1372. He used to be at the moment purely approximately twenty-two years previous. He used to be born round 1350" in Compiegne within the De de France, even if his five relations identify affiliates him with the village of Ailly in Picardy. In 1364 he entered the collage of Paris as a 'bursar' (i. e. , the recipient of a scholarship) on the collage de Navarre. He acquired the measure of Bachelor of Arts in 1367 and taught there till 1368, while he entered the college of Theology. He turned a physician of Theology in 1381. within the years that undefined, Peter used to be very energetic within the 'conciliar' flow and in negotiations to lead to the tip of the nice Schism of the West. He was once increased to the rank of Cardinal in 1411 through Pope John XXIII, the successor of Alexander V within the 'Pisa' line of Popes. He took an lively half within the Council of Constance (1414-1418), which ended the nice Schism and elected Pope Martin V. Peter died on August nine, 1420. many of the secondary literature on Peter of Ailly issues his function in church politics, his writings at the Schism and on ecclesiastical reform, and diverse elements of his theology. yet Peter was once energetic in a couple of different components to boot. He wrote a number of works, for example, on geography and astron 6 omy, together with an Imago mundi learn by way of Christopher Columbus.
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Extra resources for Peter of Ailly: Concepts and Insolubles: An Annotated Translation
Another kind is of second imposition or of second intention. 240 For instance the spoken terms 'man', 'ass', 'lion', and so on. A term like this is subordinated in signifying to a mental term properly so called, which is called a 'first 241 intention'. That was discussed on another occasion above (pars. 21-25). 242 On the other hand, they are said to be 'offtrst intention' because there corresponds to them in the mind a concept that is a frrst intention. (76) But a spoken term of second imposition or of second intention is a [spoken] 243 term that, in virtue of the imposition it actually has, signifies (a) a thing that is a (ed 1 6va) sign of another thing, insofar as it is a sign, or (b) a thing signified by another term, insofar as it is signified [by convention] 244 by that term.
The antecedent l44 is proven as follows: If a term signifies some thing naturally [and] properly, it necessarily signifies that thing, and is unable not to signify that same thing. 145 But if the same term signifies that same thing by convention, it signifies that thing not necessarily but rather contingently, and so it is able not to signify that thing. Therefore, it is (both] able not to signify and unable not to signify the same thing, which is a manifest contradiction. Therefore, that from which it is inferred 146 is impossible.
114) Proof· Some hypothetical is put together in this way; therefore, every [other one is] too. The inference holds because there seems [to be] no greater reason for one [to be so put together] than [there is] for [any] other. 331 First, because of 332 the copulative hypothetical to which there corresponds a spoken [sentence made up] of contradictory parts - such as the sentence 'Socrates runs and Socrates does not run'. A sentence like that signifies Socrates to run and Socrates not to run. But no simple act of knowing - that is, one not put together out of several specifically distinct parts - can signify in that way.