By Jaap Scheerens

This publication offers a overview of the effectiveness of chance to profit (OTL) operationalized because the organization among OTL and scholar success. moreover, it offers an problematic conceptual map during which OTL is thought of as a part of a bigger inspiration of curriculum alignment. significant elements of this framework are nationwide ambitions and criteria, tuition curricula, formative checks, textbooks, genuine supply of content material as a part of educating, and summative assessments and examinations.Alignment among academic ambitions, meant and applied curricula, and academic results is taken into account a huge prerequisite for potent schooling. the expectancy is that larger alignment ends up in greater pupil functionality. the idea that of OTL is usually used to match content material coated, as a part of the applied curriculum, with scholar fulfillment. As such it really is to be obvious as an aspect of the wider idea of “alignment”. because it involves bettering OTL in academic coverage and perform, proactive curriculum improvement is in comparison to a extra retroactive orientation. valid different types of try out and exam instruction belong to this retroactive orientation, and are obvious as favorable stipulations for optimizing OTL. This booklet stories the learn proof at the results of OTL on scholar success by way of distinct descriptions of key-empirical reviews, a evaluation of meta-analyses, a “vote count number” syntheses of fifty one empirical reviews, performed among 1995 and 2015, and a secondary research in line with TIMSS 2011, and PISA 2012 information. It concludes that the impression measurement of OTL, at approximately .30, is inconspicuous, yet related in dimension to different effectiveness-enhancing stipulations in education. the ultimate bankruptcy of the booklet presents feedback for academic coverage and perform to extra optimize OTL.

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However, the considerable overlap between both data-sets should be recognized and explains the close correspondence in results between 1997 and 2007. Thirdly, the result cited from Hattie’s meta-analysis of meta-analyses, as far as OTL are concerned, is based on a somewhat remote “proxy” of OTL, namely “enrichment programs for gifted children”. It is quite striking, given the comprehensiveness of Hattie’s study, that opportunity to learn is not directly addressed in his analyses of school and teaching variables.

The curriculum is defined as the intended course of study and sequences of learning opportunities in formal schooling. The curriculum is described as comprising of four “artefacts” which together express curriculum intentions and implementation: – Standards (official documents) – Textbooks 32 J. Scheerens – Teachers’ content goals (the proportion of teachers in a country who say they have taught the content; score per topic) – Duration of (actual, implemented) content coverage (national average of how long-time—a topic was taught, during a study year).

The TIMSS math and science frameworks consist of content units (topics) and performances expected of students (other authors have referred to the latter as cognitive operations). The TIMSS framework was used as a metric to compare national curricula, in terms of topics addressed proportional to the whole range of topics in the TIMSS framework. These analyses yield measures of national curricula or national content standards. In measuring curriculum documents, like textbooks, “blocks” were the fundamental units that were coded, counted and analyzed.

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