By Philipp Herzog

Many organisations have shifted from a Closed Innovation to an Open Innovation method. in the course of such swap, companies frequently concentrate on enforcing new strategies to spot and use exterior applied sciences and new markets. Adapting the innovation tradition, notwithstanding, is missed and ends up in a nonsatisfying implementation luck. Philipp Herzog develops a theoretical framework concentrating on variations among Closed and Open Innovation cultures (e.g. NIH syndrome). in keeping with a multi-respondent survey between R&D staff within the chemical undefined, he offers empirical proof for plenty of of the hypothesized changes in innovation tradition. The 2d revised variation has been thoroughly reviewed and up-to-date.

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Extra resources for Open and Closed Innovation: Different Cultures for Different Strategies

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Source: adapted from Chesbrough (2003c), p. 44. See, for example, Leker (2005a), p. 569. 110 HOWELLS, JAMES AND MALIK state that the innovation process generally becomes more and more complex. Today, many difficult and intractable scientific problems call for interdisciplinary research. 112 Furthermore, the market for technological knowledge continues to develop. Many firms outsource routine research tasks to research partners or contractors but are still reluctant to do so with critical technologies.

One exception refers to direct marketing practices where individual customers are known and directly targeted. See Backhaus and Voeth (2007), pp. ; Kotler, Pfoertsch and Michi (2006), pp. 20 ff. See Kotler, Pfoertsch and Michi (2006), p. 22. Arora, Fosfuri and Gambardella (2002), p. 6. For example, a start-up’s business model may be based on the mere development and licensing of a new technology rather than on its manufacturing and commercialization, which require substantial resources. See Arora, Fosfuri and Gambardella (2002), pp.

7. See Choi and Valikangas (2001), p. 426. See Bröring (2005), p. 2. In general, the development of new technologies across different industry sectors can lead to industry convergence. For example, recent developments in biotechnology have led to new technology platforms crucial to different industries. See Bröring, Cloutier and Leker (2006); Herzog, Bröring and Leker (2006), pp. 6 f. See Gassmann (2006), p. 224. See Chesbrough (2003c), pp. 38 f. See West and Gallagher (2006), p. 319. Innovation and the Open Innovation concept 27 advocates of the stored IP could leave the firm to establish their own start-up financed by venture capital.

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