By Agnes Arber

Whilst she used to be elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1946, Agnes Arber (1879-1960) was once one in every of simply 3 girls to were admitted into the establishment. Arber performed study that targeted frequently at the morphology of flowering vegetation, yet her paintings is characterized by way of its explorations of ancient botany and evolution. First released in 1950, this e-book widens the scope of morphology right into a research of all facets of shape around the complete chronology of botany. Arber starts off with Aristotle and investigates the paintings of early sleek botanists like Bacon and Goethe, earlier than interpreting the consequences of this wider method on matters like evolution and taxonomy. Arguing that post-Darwinian doctrine usually explanations botanists to curl their observations to fit a hypothetical background of phylogenesis, instead of altering the speculation to fit observational proof, this daring and engaging textual content will curiosity scholars of biology and philosophy alike.

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Neukaledonien und die Fidschi-Inseln sind Bruchstücke des Gondwana-Kontinents; die übrigen sind vulkanischen Ursprungs. Zu beachten ist, dass die Zahlen nicht mehr auf dem neuesten Stand sind. Sie dienen deshalb lediglich zum Vergleich zwischen den Inseln. Inselgruppen Zahl endemischer Gattungen Neukaledonien 655 104 Neukaledonien1 788 108 Fidschi 476 10 Marianen 215 1 Marquesas 113 2 Samoa 302 1 Gesellschaftsinseln 201 2 81 0 226 43 Süd-Tuamotu Hawai‘i 1 Gesamtzahl Gattungen nach Morat (1993).

Typische endemische Gattungen sind unter den Bäumen Allocasuarina, unter den Poaceae das Igelgras Triodia sowie das Horstgras Astrebla, unter den Chenopodiaceae Maireana. Die Region enthält Regenwaldrelikte, die in der Umgebung wasserführender Sandsteine den spättertiären Austrocknungsprozess überlebt haben, wie Macrozamia macdonnellii (Zamiaceae; Macdonell Range) und Livistona mariae (Arecaceae; Palm Valley). Vermutlich sind über 90 % der Arten endemisch. 35. Die westaustralische Florenregion umfasst das Winterregengebiet mit Hartlaubcharakter.

1 1 20 1 Grundlagen zum Verständnis der Pflanzendecke 11–20 21–30 20 11–>21 1–10 11–20 >31 1–10 1–10 2 Abb. 1-15 Areal der Gattung Artemisia mit Linien gleicher Artenzahl (nach Meusel et al. 1965–1992). Das Sippenzentrum mit über 31 Arten und damit wohl auch das Entstehungsgebiet der vorwiegend in Trockengebieten der kühl-gemäßigten Klimazone vorkommenden Gattung liegen in Mittel- und Zentralasien. Synanthrope Vorkommen sind mit Kreuzen gekennzeichnet; das Areal weitet sich also anthropogen aus.

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