By G. Fierro (auth.), Prof. Riccardo Casale, Prof. Claudio Margottini (eds.)

Natural failures are a transparent instance of individuals residing in clash with the surroundings. mess ups reason human, social and environmental losses and, occasionally, even threaten geopolitical balance, as in lots of much less constructed nations. also they are an issue of world challenge, even if harm is neighborhood: the mechanisms are frequently depending on international meteoro-climatic flow. Losses often impact a number of nations, as might be obvious within the floods in significant Europe in 2002. it's seen that there's a transparent want for a brand new method, in a position to incorporating the prevention of usual mess ups, when mitigating innovations in the cycle of sustainable improvement. There are not any thematic disciplines or political obstacles limitating projects: the mixing of knowledge prone, information users/information services and data clients, in an international and holistic demeanour, is the specified final result of the hot frontier. This e-book falls into this new class: multidisciplinary interventions and socio-economic element of perspectives are the elemental inputs for a altering technological know-how, enforcing sustainable improvement for the good thing about electorate and society. it really is constituted of reviews and investigations which clarify ordinary procedures and modelling, in addition to assessing dangers and hazards and is rounded of with feedback for sustainable improvement. therefore reflecting the simplest result of learn in this subject funded via the ecu Commission.

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A different behaviour is to be expected with respect to meteorological parameters for different landslide typologies: superficiallandslides as debris flows, earth flows, and mudflows are generally triggered by intense rainfall that transfers effective precipitation to pore pressure. For shallow landslides (2-3 m depth), threshold values can be generally expressed in terms of intensity with respect to the average annual precipitation, especially in areas characterised by homogeneity in slope angles and geological and geomorphological features.

Research Nat. Sc. (Special Report 176:11-33) Additional References Angeli, MG, Barbarella M, Pontoni F (1992) Instability of asea cliff: Siroto landslide, Italy. In: BeII DH (ed) proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Landslides, voi II, pp 1093-1100 Bhandari RK, Seanayake KS, Thaylan N (1991) PitfalIs in the prediction oflandslide through rainfall data. Proc. 6th Symp. on Landslides. In: BeII DH (ed) proceedings ofthe 6th Symposium on Landslides, voi II, pp 887-892 Brand EW, Hudson RR (1982) CHASE - An empirical approach to the design of cut slopes in Hong Kong soils.

5° radar beam elevation, this area is unaffected by ground elutter, beam blocking and VPR effects. AIso, ground reflection of side Iobes is minimised. The bias is computed at hourly time step by taking the ratio between gauge-based and radar-based mean areal rainfall. Twelve rain gauges are used to compute the gauge-based mean areal rainfall. The Marshall-Palmer relationship is used to convert reflectivity to rainfall rate, based on previous investigations in this area. 2. Rain gauge data have been interpolated to estimate the mean areal rainfall, for both basins and for the are a selected for estimation of mean field bias, by using the 'Spline' technique, a good substitute of kriging for this estimation problem (Borga and Vizzaccaro 1997).

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