By Davide Castellani

‘Castellani and Zanfei have built an unique and complete research of the function of establishment agencies within the move, construction and diffusion of expertise. by way of constructing their view of the multinationals as "double community institutions", the authors supply new insights on numerous key concerns on the frontier of economics of foreign construction and innovation. This ebook is thought-provoking, incisive and topical, and may be required interpreting for either economists and policymakers alike.’ – Rajneesh Narula, college of examining, united kingdom ‘Castellani and Zanfei current an in-depth theoretical and empirical research of the foremost matters underpinning the connection among innovation and multinationality. This booklet is strongly-recommended examining for any researcher engaged on innovation or multinationality or the interface among the two.’ – Grazia Ietto-Gillies, London South financial institution collage, united kingdom This e-book will get to the basis of ways and why multinational enterprises fluctuate within the cross-border production, move and diffusion of know-how, and gives clean facts at the results that those alterations have on productiveness and innovation within the monetary platforms within which they're energetic. Davide Castellani and Antonello Zanfei ponder multinationals as heterogeneous associations that mix inner networks of subsidiaries with exterior networks of collaborative linkages, to bridge various monetary and innovation structures. They research heterogeneity in productiveness and leading edge habit among multinational and nationwide companies, in addition to throughout and inside multinationals. The authors argue that now not each overseas enterprise is an effective resource of externality, and never each family enterprise is both good positioned to learn from multinationals. it really is proven that spillovers from multinationals fluctuate in accordance with the technological profiles, embeddedness and linkage construction of either overseas and household businesses energetic in neighborhood markets. The ebook helps this view with empirical facts according to illustrative case reports, and on econometric research utilizing vast firm-level datasets on multinational actions, innovation and financial performances. Integrating an in-depth account of cutting-edge literature with targeted facts, this e-book might be of significant curiosity to an intensive viewers. this may surround scholars, researchers, teachers, coverage makers and practitioners throughout quite a lot of disciplines together with: overseas company, economics and administration of innovation, overseas economics and commercial association.

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8 MULTINATIONALS AS BRIDGING INSTITUTIONS The evolution of MNFs towards a double network structure entails that they increasingly act as bridging institutions connecting a number of geographically dispersed economic and innovation systems. In fact, each of the external actors with which MNFs are interconnected across countries are themselves involved in extensive webs of relationships with other firms and institutions. Therefore, MNFs are embedded in sectoral, regional and national contexts whose characteristics and evolution affects, and are influenced by, their behaviour and performances.

They will also have a greater possibility to contribute to the evolution of their own system of origin, and of the foreign systems in which they are active. 19 It will also depend on the strengths and weaknesses of other countries in which the MNF is active, whose characteristics can be absorbed and transmitted to each of the systems it connects. Furthermore, as they increase their degree of internationalisation, multinationals will be able to respond to constraints and stimuli stemming from their own systems of origin and of destination using a wider variety of 36 The changing role of multinational firms in innovation alternative strategies.

This process is likely to produce a suboptimal disclosure or degree of knowledge transfer within the MNF. In other words, the process of reverse technology transfer may not be working properly (Criscuolo 2004). Among other consequences, autonomy may thus end up increasing, rather than reducing, the cultural and organisational distance between the headquarters and affiliates, which is considered a fundamental source of communication problems (Buckley and Carter 2004). Besides, subsidiaries will be less willing to transfer knowledge if their local markets are large, implying that their incentive to pursue knowledge economies of scales through the network will not be so compelling.

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