By Zhores A. Medvedev

Although as a part of my basic plan, this ebook is a continua­ tion of my prior monograph "Protein Biosynthesis and difficulties of Ontogenesis,"* released in 1963, in all different respects it truly is an self reliant paintings. the sooner monograph was once dedicated to the research of the various elements of the matter of protein biosynthesis, and difficulties of inheritance and improvement have been mentioned basically insofar as they're derivatives of the issues of biosynthesis. The complicated act of protein biosynthesis, comprising autore­ creation of the genetic fabric (DNA), formation of the templates of protein synthesis (messenger RNA), synthesis of amino acid providers (transfer RNA), formation of ribosomes and polysomes, activation of amino acids, and so forth, was once tested within the prior monograph now not simply from the perspective of interplay among the parts of the program, but additionally from that in their mani­ festation in genuine organic platforms in the course of morphogenesis and getting older of the organism. in spite of the fact that, either morphogenesis and getting older have been investigated very more often than not, easily as types, with none certain research in their particular positive aspects and complexity. the current ebook is accordingly a logical continuation of its prede­ cessor. It rests mostly on a accomplished research of the molecular-genetic and biochemical points of improvement and differentiation of dwelling organisms, and questions of protein biosyn­ thesis are mentioned in brief and customarily, and in simple terms as far as is important for success of the first activity. • Zh. A. Medvedev. 1966. Protein Biosynthesis and difficulties of Heredity. Developement.

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From this point of view the small phages containing single-stranded DNA, of which phage 42 MOLECULAR-GENETIC MECHANISMS OF REPRODUCTION [CHAP. 2 q,X174 has been most thoroughly studied from the biochemical aspect, is of special interest. In the group of viruses just considered, succession of generations was due to ribonucleic acid, molecules of which, possessing the ability of autoreplication, were at the same time the actual templates of synthesis of specific proteins. However, at the stage of evolution of life when the genetic system of the individual form of life was represented by a single macromolecule, combination of the template and genetic functions in the same polynucleotide chain has definite limitations.

S. Spirin, Izd. Nauka, Moscow, p. 312. , 1964, Science, 145 :890. , Bennett, T. , and Craig, L. , 1964, Proc. Nat. Acad. , USA, 51:120. Goodman, H. , 1962, Proc. Nat. Acad. , USA, 48:2101. Goodman, H. , 1963, Nature, 199:318. Holley, R. , Madison, J. , Merrill, S. , Penswick, J. , 1965, Science, 147:1462. , and August, J. , 1963, In: Progress in Nucleic Acid Research, Vol. 1, eds. J. N. Davidson and W. E. Cohen, Academic Press, New York. Ingram, V. , 1965, The Biosynthesis of Macromolecules, W.

At the same time, these investigations showed that virus RNA does not contain information programming synthesis of virusspecific coat protein throughout its length, because only some of the changes in nucleotide composition are revealed as changes in virus protein. Wittman (1963) studied 133 mutants of tobacco mosaic virus (117 obtained by the action of nitric acid and 16 spontaneous mutants) in this respect. Of the 117 nitric acid mutants, 82 had no change in the protein particle of the coat, and only 35 had various substitutions in the amino acid chain.

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