By Alan Harding

"The kingdom" is the main robust of political principles yet the place does it come from? This broad-ranging new research lines the heritage of the notice and the concept that again to the structures of legislation and justice created through medieval kings and exhibits how criminal associations received political force.

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29. 133 Capitularia, ii. 15. 134 Ibid. i. 5; cf. Diplomi Italiani di Lodovico III e di Rodolfo II, ed. L. 14 (a. 900: a bishop and his successors, their property and familia to remain under the king’s protection quiete et pacifice . . remota totius potestatis inquietudine, praying pro nobis nostrique regni statu. 131 40 Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Justice lands had been allotted to him) granted immunities to be possessed quieto ordine and in return for prayers for the safety of his family and ‘the stability of our whole empire’ (or ‘the stability of the realm’ or ‘the state of our whole realm’).

23; Van Caenegem, Royal Writs in England. 110 I Placiti del ‘Regnum Italiae’, i. 50; Capitularia, ii. 87 (c. 3). 111 Liebermann, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen, i. 228 (3,1). 112 Capitularia, i. 185 (cc. 1–2), ii. 8; Ganshof, The Carolingians and the Frankish Monarchy, 148–50, 157 n. 49; F. N. Estey, ‘The Scabini and the Local Courts’, Speculum, 26 (1951), 119–29; I Placiti del ‘Regnum Italiae’, i. 353, 377–8, 477, 548–9. 113 Capitularia, i. 7. 114 Ibid. i. 348–50. 116 And along with this proliferation of lawyers there appeared a new type of legal wrong (tortum, ‘tort’): the false complaint or pleading which was quite logically presumed of those who lost their cases.

93 (c. 9), 96 (cc. 25–6), 153 (c. 3), 154 (c. 15); Ganshof, The Carolingians and the Frankish Monarchy, 150–1, 159; for the writing-down and correction of the laws, see Capitularia, i. 105, and Einhard, Vita Karoli Magni, ed. O. Holder-Egger, MGH Scriptores rerum Germanicarum 25 (Hanover, 1911), 24–5 (ch. 29); S. F. C. Milsom, The Legal Framework of English Feudalism (Cambridge UP, 1976), 46. Legal order 37 jurisdiction. 120 The continued making or confirming by kings of grants of property to be held in ‘undisturbed’ or ‘quiet and secure’ order, quiete ab omni seculari accione, the pleading of such grants in the courts,121 and the surrendering of property by parties to English land-transactions ‘quit’ of any claim, all testified to the debt of European land law to the legal procedures developed by the Franks.

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