By Michael A. Colman

This thesis describes the advance of biophysically specific desktop versions of the human atria and torso to review the underlying mechanisms of cardiac ailments, the most universal factors of morbidity and mortality. this can be a cross-disciplinary undertaking, concerning basics of cardiac electrophysiology, physics of excitable media, utilized arithmetic and excessive functionality clinical computing and visualisation. the writer makes use of computing device types to supply insights into the underlying mechanisms of the genesis of atrial traumatic inflammation and develops novel options for the tracking of atrial tachycardia.

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Additional resources for Mechanisms of Atrial Arrhythmias: Insights from the Development of a Biophysically Detailed Model of the Human Atria

Sample text

Ca2+ in the intracellular space binds with the receptors and this causes release of Ca2+ from the SR into the intracellular space [20]. They are located in close proximity to the L-type Ca2+ channels and it is the influx of Ca2+ ions due to ICaL during phase 2 of the AP which causes this Ca2+ release. This process is known as Calcium-Induced-Calcium-Release (CICR) [20]. It is the Ca2+ released from the SR which binds with the contractile proteins, causing them to shorten and the cell to contract.

This is because it is often obscured by the QRS complex. The QRS complex represents the depolarisation of the ventricles. Because the ventricles have a much larger mass than the atria, the QRS complex is usually an order of magnitude larger than the P-wave. Finally is the T wave, which is due to repolarisation of the ventricles. Due to ventricular APD heterogeneity, it is usually in the same orientation as the QRS complex. Fig. 14 Schematic of an ECG. A schematic example of a typical ECG waveform.

3. Excitation is initiated in the RA from the centre of the SAN. Myocytes within the SAN are able to spontaneously generate electrical excitation at rates of between 60 and 100 bpm [1, 13]. Mechanisms by which they are able to do so are discussed in Sect. 5. From the SAN, excitation is rapidly conducted along the bundles of the CT and PM through the RA, and via BB into the LA. The existence of internodal pathways in the right atrium is disputed, although recent micro-CT evidence in the rabbit atria suggest they are present [14].

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