By Yasushi Hashimoto, Hiroshi Nonami, Paul J. Kramer, Boyd R. Strain

Any rationalization of the physiological ecology of plant growth-why crops live on particularly environments-requires the dimension of the results of environmental components. This booklet reports the historical past, improvement, and present prestige of tools and dimension ideas which were quite necessary in box reviews of plant physiological ecology. it will likely be of curiosity to researchers and scholars in plant body structure and biochemistry, crop scientists, horticulturalists, and foresters.

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2) Use of functional mechanical structure (Intelligent structure). 3) Integration with computers. In the 1st and 2nd approach, signal processing is analog signal discrimination. Only useful signal is selected and noise or undesirable effects are suppressed. Thus, signal selectivity is realized by the specific materials or specific From Sensor Devices to Intelligent Sensing Systems 31 mechanical structure. In the 1st approach, a unique combination between object material and sensor material contributes to realize the almost ideal signal selectivity.

1983). From Sensor Devices to Intelligent Sensing Systems 33 90° 150°I 30· 180 210° 90° 210 f~ fyfw- lms Γι » ι ι t 1 t » ι t » < < 1 Figure 4. Pinna impulse responses in the median plane. Not only human ear systems, but other sensory systems of man and animals are good examples of intelligent sensing systems with functional structure. The most important feature of such intelligent sensing systems is integration of multiple functions; sensing and signal processing, sensing and actuating, signal processing and signal transmission.

The d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g the s o l u t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of cell w a l l w a t e r is reviewed b r i e f l y by Boyer (1985, pp. 4 9 9 500) . D. Turgor Pressure The turgor p r e s s u r e u s u a l l y is c a l c u l a t e d from the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the o s m o t i c p o t e n t i a l and the water p o t e n t i a l . H o w e v e r , direct m e a s u r e m e n t s of 54 Chapter 2: Water Relations turgor p r e s s u r e can be m a d e by the use of m i n i a t u r e p r e s s u r e p r o b e s , as d e s c r i b e d in p a p e r s in this v o l u m e by Nonami and Boyer and by S t e u d l e .

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