By Y. Yamada

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15 10. T. Aoki, M. Wakita and T. Ozone: Transactions of JSSR 43 (1998) p. 1 Manufacturing Method of Steel Material for Springs (1) Introductions The materials applied for springs are extended to metallic and nonmetallic types, in addition, among the metals there are many types, such as, spring steel, stainless steel, nickel alloy and so on. Their required properties vary accordingly. However, whatever the applications, it is certain that a high stress during cyclic loading and prolonged reliability should be required.

9 for steel, as an example, can be one solution. There is a good correlation between the hardness and fatigue strength. On the other hand, for the machines and structures where low cycle fatigue fracture is a problem, it becomes important to estimate the fatigue life under the expected strain and cycles of those products within their commercially using period. There are following equations to estimate low cycle fatigue life from the mechanical properties. 14) where, Δεt is total strain range (= 2εta ), εf = ln{1/(1−φ)}, φ is the reduction of area in tensile tests, E is Young’s modulus, σw is completely reversed fatigue strength, and σB is tensile strength.

The stress corresponding to a certain number of cycles is called fatigue strength at that number of cycles. The fatigue strength at 107 cycles or at 108 cycles can be also called as fatigue limit. The fatigue fractures below 104 cycles can be called as low cycle fatigue fracture, which can be distinguished from high cycle fatigue fracture over 104 cycles. The fatigue life under S-N curve normally shows many scattering, which can be shown in Fig. 6. The Fig. 6 shows the results of quenched and tempered steel on the rotating bend fatigue tests, in the form of P-S-N curves taking fracture probability, P , as one parameter [41].

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