By Beth Ellis; et al

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One such case is the diatom Asterionella formosa, which does not occur in tropical lakes because it cannot survive temperatures greater than 25 ЊC. The absence of a species at higher temperatures does not mean that the species is necessarily limited by temperature. It is also possible that other factors that are correlated with temperature falsely suggest temperature dependency. For example, a species may not inhabit warm regions of a lake because the warmer water contains less oxygen. 6 Growth rate (d–1) gives the algae shorter exposure times to high light levels for photosynthesis, limiting its growth and population size.

Relative fluorescence Depth (m) 5 10 15 20 surface. 5), whereas aerobic respiration consumes organic matter and uses oxygen. Oxygen production usually predominates in the light, and oxygen consumption in the dark. Lakes can be divided into two regions based on these processes: the lighted trophogenic zone, in which organic matter is synthesized and oxygen produced, and the tropholytic zone, where organic matter is decomposed and oxygen is consumed. The trophogenic zone often, but not always, corresponds to the epilimnion.

After two headwater streams unite, they become a second-order stream. The juncture of two second-order streams produces a thirdorder stream, etc. (Fig. 12). The world’s largest river systems have stream orders of 11–12. Although stream order does not say anything about the length, size, and watershed area of a particular stream, there are consistencies that allow some generalizations. For example, when one moves to a lower order, there are about 3–4 times more streams and each is on the average less than onehalf as long and drains one-fifth of the watershed area (Hynes 1970).

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