By T. T. Macan, Edgar Barton Worthington

One of many MANY issues MADE through lecturers OF ECOLOGY IS THAT THE ANIMAL AND PLANT neighborhood will be easily STUDIED IN A POND OR LAKE. comprises forty five colour images, AND 20 MAPS AND DIAGRAMS

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In comparison with the sea most bodies of fresh water are very small and fishes feeding on the larger animals on the bottom in shallow water could easily make excursions to prey on any large organism that developed in the open water. Most of the sea is so far from land that this cannot happen, and predators and prey must develop in balance together. One representative of that enterprising group the insects inhabits open water, and provides one of the most remarkable examples of adaptation that the animal kingdom has to show.

Animals use up oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and plants do the same in the dark. While illuminated, the latter do the reverse, absorbing carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Still water with much vegetation in bright sunlight may for a period have more oxygen in solution than the normal maximum at the temperature prevailing. This condition, which is unstable, is technically known as super-saturation. Decomposition also uses up oxygen, and serious pollution, by sewage for example, exerts its effect on the fauna by depleting the water of oxygen.

Stations for fundamental research were started in other countries in the years which followed, usually in connection with universities. The best known today are: Hillerød in Denmark, opened in 1900 by the University of Copenhagen and made famous by Professor C. Wesenberg-Lund, who devoted the first ten years to plankton problems and has since studied the biology of many invertebrate groups; Lunz, opened in 1905 on an Alpine lake in Austria; Aneboda, started in 1908 by the University of Lund in Sweden and associated particularly with the name of Einar Naumann, who elaborated theories of lake classification; and Tihany on Lake Balaton in Hungary.

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