By Gideon M. Kressel

Analyzing the an important difficulties confronting present-day cattle breeders, mostly Bedouin and Jews in Israel, but additionally pastoral nomads in neighboring heart jap nations, allow Shepherding suffer proposes new methods for those governments to reinforce and maintain the long term destiny improvement of shepherding groups. Adopting a wide old and anthropological viewpoint at the subject, and assessing a number of pastoral aid courses, Kressel proposes another application wherein the region’s states could advertise a model of pastoralism that preserves rangeland herding whereas maintaining in line with the modern cultural and political context. This really visionary set of options could have a number of dividends, specially for the Bedouin: their cultural legacy, at risk of obsolescence, will be preserved whereas while improving either their pastoral talents and skill to safe a livelihood from herding.

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Numerous segments of these tribes entered Palestine in the wake of the French (Bailey 1980: 37, 39), while other segments retained a foothold in their traditional dîra and did not relinquish their former territory. In 1813, representatives of the Tiyaha and the Tarabin jointly raided the returning ˙ajj caravan between Suez and Cairo (Rustum 1940–1943: vol. 1, p. 9). Afterward, with the strengthening of Egypt’s central authority, they were forced to move their encampments eastward. Muhammad Ali forged Egypt’s army into an efficient machine and thereby gained control over the neighboring deserts, even dislodging Bedouin inhabiting lands far away from the Nile Valley.

Tribesmen constituted the rank and file of the Muslim troops while literate townsmen from Mecca and Medina provided the leadership. Both the tribal aristocracy and the “Hagarene legionaries” (Crone and Cook 1977: 125–126) disintegrated in due course, losing power to Umayyad, that is, Syrian and Mesopotamian—administrators (Donner 1981) and urban generals. Despite the presence of a literate cadre who left historical sources, depicting the internal processes of Arabization and Islamization in North 14 Let Shepherding Endure Africa, we find little mention of the vanguard’s support echelons and routes of supply and reinforcement.

D. Atlantic Ocean Until the present Sedentarization Throughout North Africa Qarmatians Shiites Bani Kalb West Shore of Persian Gulf Egypt 10 yrs. ) or Back Home Vacated the Region Cyrenaica 10 c. D. 1 (continued) Toward Africa and from Africa Back East Time of Arrival Ultimate Point of Progression Bani Sulaim Arabian Bani Hilal Peninsula 11 c. D. Maghreb Until the present Bani Jarh ˇayy Conf. Syrian Desert 11 c. D. Southern Palestine Few Decades Return Back East Saljuq Turks Inner Asia 11 c. D.

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