By Adrian J. Boas

Adrian Boas's mixed use of historic and archaeological proof including first-hand bills written via vacationing pilgrims ends up in a multi-faceted standpoint on Crusader Jerusalem.

Generously illustrated, this e-book will serve either as a scholarly account of this city's archaeology and background, and an invaluable advisor for the reader to a urban on the centre of foreign and non secular curiosity and clash today.

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The greatest pressure on Balian was exerted by Patriarch Eraclius. Balian was in a difficult position because of his oath to Saladin, which he felt bound to uphold. He chose the extraordinary action of applying to Saladin to release him from his oath, and Saladin with even more remarkable 15 — The Medieval City — magnanimity agreed to do so. Balian immediately set up a provisional government, organizing a makeshift army as there were almost no fighting men in the city. 47 However, these numbers are pure propaganda, doubtless aimed at glorifying the achievement of the Ayyubid army.

Markets, hospices, hospitals and other churches were developed around it, bringing the Church both prestige and considerable revenues. The Patriarch’s Quarter was defined in the north and west by the city walls, in the east by the market streets on the ancient line of the Cardo, and in the south by David Street. It centred around the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Patriarch’s Palace, which was situated against the north-west side of the church. Other institutions in this quarter included the patriarch’s bathhouse, the pool, Lacus Balneorum (the Pool of Hezekiah) and the stables.

His delay in doing so, and consequent falling out with the Pope, resulted in excommunication two years later. But in the meantime Frederick received a promise from the Egyptian Sultan al-Malik al-Kâmil (1218–38) that if the emperor aided him in his dispute with his brother, al-Mu‘azzam ‘Isâ (the governor of Damascus) al-Malik al-Kâmil would give Frederick the Holy City. Finally, in 1228, Frederick arrived in Acre. By this time al-Mu‘azzam ‘Isâ was dead, but al-Malik al-Kâmil could not renege on his promise and the agreement was ratified at Jaffa on 18 February 1229.

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