By Efraim Karsh

The Zionist flow was once born within the wake of Jewish emancipation in Western Europe, and at a time of elevated persecution in jap Europe. This quantity addresses the highbrow, social and political ramifications of Jewish payment in Eretz Israel earlier than the production of the nation of Israel.

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But, by the same token, the hero was willing to become a martyr because he or she died in defence of the sacred homeland. Even if territory per se had not before been a sacred value, modern nationalism sanctified the land through the martyrdom of those who died for it. But, in order to make martyrs for the homeland, an earlier generation of heroes had to be seen as martyrs who sacrificed their lives for the defence of their country. 20 This means, of course, that fervent nationalism tends to be both territorial and martial.

13 There are a number of ways in which territories become sacred in the eyes of their inhabitants. The first is where an ethnie is also a community of believers, linked by a single faith and cult. A people that adheres to a sacred life-style, scripture and liturgy which it believes has been ordained for it by the deity comes to see itself as a ‘holy people’ and its habitat as sanctified through the repeated performance of sacred acts to fulfil the mission with which it was entrusted. Indeed, the belief may arise that a holy people is rewarded for its faithful observance by the promise and possession of a holy land, a land conferred by the deity on a people that fulfils a sacred mission entrusted to it by the deity.

But, in order to make martyrs for the homeland, an earlier generation of heroes had to be seen as martyrs who sacrificed their lives for the defence of their country. 20 This means, of course, that fervent nationalism tends to be both territorial and martial. Its symbol is David's icon of patriotic resolve, the Oath of the Horatii, showing the oath sworn on their father's sword by the three Horatii brothers to defend Rome against her enemy in combat with the three defenders of Alba Longa, the Curatii brothers, and die for their country.

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