By Jonathan W. Wright

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It is more likely that each company will work with its own material for 2 to 3 generations, then exchange pollen or seeds with other companies. In that way, alter­ nate inbreeding and outcrossing will be accomplished. H Y B R I D VIGOR Inbreeding / 41 versus Improvement Inbreeding can also be considered as a narrowing of the genetic base. Almost every improvement method results in a narrowing of the genetic base to some extent. This is true whether the improvement con­ sists of selecting the best one of many species, the best one of many races within a species, the best one of many parental stands within a race, or the best one of many individual parents.

After meiosis in a ( female ) egg mother cell, a In nucleus is formed which then divides (by mitosis) to produce eight nuclei, of which three are especially important. One is called the "egg nucleus" and the other two are called the "polar nuclei"; all are In. Meanwhile, as a pollen grain germinates on the style of the female flower, its In nucleus divides (by mitosis) to produce two In nuclei. At the time of fertilization a In male nucleus from the pollen grain fertilizes the In female egg nucleus to produce the fertilized egg, which then develops into an embryo and a tree.

W W , and W are the fitnesses of AA, Aa, and aa trees, respectively. n is the number of generations. 0 0 u Aa 2 2 a a AAy Ail a a H a r d y - W e i n b e r g Equilibrium The Hardy-Weinberg "law" states: the gametic constitution of a population remains constant from one generation to the next in the absence of mutation, random changes or selection (Li, 1955). The law may seem intuitive and too simple to need explanation. T h e theorem used to prove it is interesting, providing a simple illustration of the mathematics of selection.

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