By Alain Vanderpoorten, Bernard Goffinet

This is often an outstanding publication for the undergraduate scholar drawn to studying approximately bryophytes. The chapters hide the fundamentals, so while you're a grad pupil seeking to brush up for normal checks, it is a nice booklet for that goal.

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70 per kg. In 1999, the harvest of over 23 million kg (air dried) generated revenues of USD 10 million (Peck 2006). The common observation that bryophytes are rarely grazed and that they are immune from bacterial and fungal infections owing to the production of chemical compounds with repellent and anti-microbial properties (Parker et al. 2000) suggests additional commercial applications. The use of moss and liverwort extracts for protecting crops is one of them, although only a few bryophyte extracts are currently sold commercially (Frahm 2004b).

This is because, although bryophytes lack actual lignin, lignin-like polymers have been identified in the cell walls of mosses, liverworts and hornworts (Ligrone et al. 2008). The presence of such compounds, coupled with a high carbon : nutrient ratio, together with unfavourable conditions for decomposition such as low temperature, low pH and anaerobic soil, strongly impede degradation. In acidic peatlands (pH 4), Fig. 2. In the temperate rain forests of the Pacific Northwest, spectacular curtains of epiphytes hang from branches and festoon tree trunks (a).

The function of stomata may thus not be homologous among land plants, but the possibility remains that the basic design may be shared and may have been fundamental for further ultrastructural and physiological modifications resulting in the complex stomata of higher plants. Transition to land and fungal associations Most land plants (90%) establish intimate symbiotic associations with fungi in or around their roots (Wang & Qiu 2006). In bryophytes, various fungi have been reported inside the cells (endomycorrhizae) (Duckett et al.

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