By Mark Denny
Ingenium is medieval English vernacular for "an creative contrivance." during this interesting publication, physicist Mark Denny considers 5 such contrivances—the bow and arrow, the waterwheel, the counterpoise siege engine (including the trebuchet), the pendulum clock anchor escapement, and the centrifugal governor—and demonstrates how they actually replaced the area. Interweaving an exciting narrative with diagrams, equations, and drawings, Denny stocks the heritage of every gadget, explains the physics at the back of it, and describes the way it used to be used, the way it developed, and why it's major in contemporary global. give some thought to the bow and arrow, which reworked struggle via permitting infantrymen to assault their enemies at a secure distance. Or the waterwheel, which enabled outdated global civilizations to grind grain, pump water, and gear machines in the course of a interval of utmost hard work shortages. Medieval warriors engaged in an early type of organic war by utilizing the trebuchet to release lifeless animals or plague-ridden corpses over huge, immense citadel partitions. The pendulum clock endlessly enslaved sleek people to the clock by means of linking the exact degree of time to the burdens of schedules, closing dates, promptness, and tardiness. And the centrifugal governor gave upward thrust to a complete department of contemporary engineering technology: suggestions control.Reflecting at the inventors of those old machines and the days within which they lived, Denny concludes with thought-provoking observations approximately inventors, inventiveness, genius, and innovation. even if you dream of constructing a greater mousetrap or launching pumpkins into the stratosphere, Ingenium will tickle your fancy.
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Additional info for Ingenium: Five Machines That Changed the World
Say the arrow is halfway from draw position to release. The shape (deformation) of the bow may not be the same as it would 28 ingenium be if the bow was drawn to this position, and held there. Consult Kooi, if you are interested in learning more about dynamic deformation of bows. references Baugh, R. A. (1992). Bulletin of Primitive Technology 1:3. Baugh, R. A. (1994). Bulletin of Primitive Technology 1:7. Berners, Lord, trans. (1904). The Chronicles of Froissart, ed. G. C. Macauly. London: Macmillan.
5. London: Constable. Montgomery, B. (1972). A Concise History of Warfare. London: Collins. Rees, G. (1995). Physics Review 4:2–6. Schuster, B. G. (1969). American Journal of Physics 37:364 –373. Seward, D. (1978). The Hundred Years War. New York: Atheneum. Soar, H. (2004). The Crooked Stick: A History of the Longbow. Yardley, PA: Westholme. bow and arrow 29 This page intentionally left blank TWO WATERWHEELS AND WINDMILLS I i place waterwheels and windmills in the same chapter, counting them as one machine for the purposes of this book.
So, medieval bows are indeed very eªcient machines. Internal Bow Dynamics: Bowstring Elasticity if the bowstring is stretchable, then bow eªciency is reduced. This happens because stretching an elastic bowstring causes energy to be stored in it, and later released when the bowstring contracts. This additional way of storing energy—in the string as well as in the bow—subtly changes the energy balance during the internal-dynamics phase of arrow ﬂight. To understand why bowstring elasticity matters I need to explain, from the point of view of energy transfer, what happens when an arrow is fired.