By Charles P. Ries, Joseph Jenkins, Oliver Wise
This learn examines how guidelines to extend power potency in structures within the eu Union and Australia have labored and attracts implications for the layout of comparable public rules for the us. it seems that potent regulations to advertise strength potency may be devised utilizing details disclosure, development codes, monetary incentives, and benchmarking. Insights are offered to aid designers of analogous U.S. rules.
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Additional info for Improving the Energy Performance of Buildings: Learning from the European Union and Australia (Technical Report (RAND))
They deﬁne standards that must be met in new building construction or major renovation, they are enforced consistently within jurisdictions, and they can set very speciﬁc minimum thermal eﬃciency standards for building envelopes; for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC); for boiler systems; or for other variables that make a diﬀerence in the energy eﬃciency of buildings. Tightened building codes are generally considered responsible for signiﬁcant improvements in the energy performance of buildings throughout the developed world between 1980 and 2000.
The prescriptive approach saves on calculation costs, since building inspectors do not need sophisticated training, nor do they make as many calculations to assess compliance as are necessary under a performance approach. The performance approach allows for more interesting innovations in energy savings on the part of building designers, but it requires more highly trained building oﬃcials and inspectors. 6 One experienced European energy consultant suggested that prescriptive approaches can be more reliable and can encourage the market to develop products that meet the requirements.
Department of Energy’s ENERGY STAR system for buildings. However, policy initiatives on both continents are relatively new, have been recently modiﬁed, and are yet to be ﬁnalized. Further, in both Europe and Australia, there is wide variety in the transposition of the general approach at the national-government level (in the EU) or in state-level initiatives (in Australia). There has been little objective, peer-reviewed research to date on the eﬀects of various approaches on energy eﬃciency. Despite the diversity of detail, energy eﬃciency policy initiatives in Europe and Australia have been assembled from common building blocks: t t t t t Building codes Energy design or use certiﬁcates Special minimum rating requirements or display obligations for public buildings Benchmarks or grading systems Qualiﬁed inspectors, including quality-assurance programs and standardized energy modeling software t Incentives (including certiﬁcate trading systems).